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Ăn Đậu Nành

Và Sản Phẩm Đậu Nành Lợi Hại Ra Sao ?

Huỳnh Chiếu Đẳng (coi lại lần thứ hai 18-Oct-2008)

Xem lại lần thứ ba ngày 23-Feb-2012

 

 

Kính thưa quí bạn hiện nay có một bài nói về 6 lý do không nên ăn nhiểu đậu hủ đang lan tràn trong internet trong email làm cho có nhiều người thắc mắc, dưới đây là một email thí dụ:

From: Julie N [mailto:concxyziki@hotmail.com]

Sent: Thursday, February 23, 2012 8:16 AM

To: HCD

Subject: RE: Thưa Thầy: Có phải đây là con Vịt Cồ lớn không Thầy? 6 lý do KHÔNG nên ăn nhiều đậu hũ (Tofu)

 

Kính thưa Thầy,

Em rất cảm ơn sự chỉ bảo của Thầy.  Giờ ăn trưa em sẽ đọc attachment của Thầy gởi.

Em cầu xin ơn trên ban phước lành cho Thầy cùng gia đình để Thầy Cô luôn khỏe mạnh, sống lâu trăm tuổi.  Nếu mà không có email của Thầy hàng ngày chắc chắn mọi người sẽ buồn và nhớ Thầy nhiều lắm.

Kính Thầy một ngày vui vẻ,

Như Ý

Cô Như Ý forward bài nầy đến tôi nguyên văn như sau. Để dễ thấy tôi ghi chữ màu tím vào từng đoạn một. Chữ đen in nghiêng là nguyên văn, chữ màu tím là của tôi viết vào. Tôi cố gắng tìm những nguồn tin độc lập không pha màu sắc thương mại và tôn giáo. Việc nầy rất khó vì ngày nay kỹ nghệ đậu nành và những sản phẩm đậu nành là kỹ nghệ nhiều tỉ đô. Tôi cũng không muốn làm cho quí bạn có cái nhìn sai lêch thật tế. Vì đậu nành là món ăn càng ngày càng được đề cao như là gạo lứt (thêm muối mè) cho nên chúng ta phải tỉnh táo mới không mắc lừa bởi nhữn webpage health food và kỹ nghệ Nutritional Supplements hàng năm hốt vào nhiều tỉ bạc tại Mỹ nầy.

 

Bắt đầu từ đây chữ màu tím là của tôi viết vào, bài rất dài, các bạn không ăn đậu nành và sản phẩm đậu nành thì delete cho rồi, đọc mất công, còn các bạn ăn đậu nành vì lý do sứ khỏe thì rất nên đọc. Riêng quí vị tu sĩ cư sĩ thì tưởng cũng không nên đọc. Lý do là quí vị khó thể tránh ăn sản phẩm từ đậu nành, đọc làm chi cho thêm mệt.
HCD (23-Feb-2012)

----trích---

 6 Lý do bạn không nên ăn nhiều đậu phụ

Nam giới nên cẩn thận khi ăn đậu phụ và các sản phẩm đậu nành khác.

Thực phẩm từ đậu nành từ lâu đã được biết đến như dinh dưỡng chăm sóc cho sức khỏe, cho dù đó là sữa đậu nành hay đậu phụ. Các loại thực phẩm này khá phổ biến, đặc biệt là ở các thành phố lớn, nơi người dân rất quan tâm đến việc chăm sóc sức khỏe hàng ngày cho mình và gia đình. Không thể phủ nhận các giá trị dinh dưỡng của đậu phụ, nó bao gồm chất béo, carbohydrate, vitamin và khoáng chất.

Theo y học Trung Quốc, đậu phụ có tính ngọt và mát mẻ, có lợi cho dạ dày, ruột già... Tuy nhiên, ăn đậu phụ cũng có thể có hại cho sức khỏe.

 

1. Suy giảm chức năng thận

Trong những trường hợp bình thường, khi ăn vào cơ thể, thức ăn thông qua sự trao đổi chất của protein thực vật, và cuối cùng hầu hết các chất thải chứa nitơ qua sự bài tiết của thận. Người già, thận giảm khả năng bài tiết chất thải, nên nếu ăn nhiều đậu phụ, tiêu thụ nhiều protein thực vật sẽ làm tăng gánh nặng cho thận vì buộc thận lọc các chất thải nhiều hơn. Lâu dài sẽ làm giảm chức năng thận.

 

Chữ nghiêng là của tác giả HH, chữ tím thẳng là của hcd

 

j

 

2. Khó tiêu

Đậu phụ rất giàu protein, ăn quá nhiều sẽ không chỉ cản trở cơ thể hấp thu sắt và protein một cách dễ dàng mà còn dẫn đến chứng khó tiêu, trướng bụng, tiêu chảy và các triệu chứng khác.

 

j

Chữ nghiêng là của tác giả HH, chữ tím thẳng là của hcd

 

 

3. Tăng nguy cơ xơ vữa động mạch

Các chuyên gia y tế nói rằng, trong đậu phụ đồng thời cũng rất phong phú chất methionine, methionine dưới tác động của enzym có thể được chuyển đổi sang cysteine. Homocysteine có thể làm tổn thương tế bào nội mô trong thành động mạch, dễ dàng để làm lắng đọng cholesterol và chất béo trung tính trong thành động mạch dẫn đến xơ vữa động mạch.


Đoạn nầy nói về cơ chế hóa học nghe mệt quá, tìm mất công tôi tìm thử coi kết quả cuối cùng từ những lý luận trên thôi, đó là:  ăn đậu nành thì có làm tăng áp huyết hay tăng cholesterol không thôi. Và đây là kết quả từ I
nstitute of Pharmacological Sciences, University of Milan, Italy.

 

j

Chuyện tìm trong đống rác Internet để nhặt được data tin cậy khó vô cùng. Các bạn tìm thử sẽ thấy một đống ca ngợi đậu nành hạ cholesterol làm ít bịnh tim mạch. Những webpage rác nầy chuyên bán sản phẩm health food. Nó khen sản phẩm của nó không có chị lạ. Nó mà chê thì ai mà mua.

 

4. Thiếu hụt iốt

Đậu phụ từ đậu nành có chứa một chất gọi là saponin, có thể thúc đẩy bài tiết i-ốt trong cơ thể con người. Do vậy, nếu tiêu thụ đậu phụ lâu dài có thể dễ dàng dẫn đến thiếu hụt iốt, khiến cơ thể bị bệnh thiếu i-ốt.

 

Chuyện đậu nành làm cơ thể thiếu iodine tôi tìm hoài không thấy tài liệu nào cả, không biết tác giả căn cứ vào đâu mà nói như vậy. Ngay như chất gọi là saponin làm bài tiết iode tôi cũng không thấy dấu vết đáng tin nào hết.

 

5. Để thúc đẩy bệnh gout

Đậu phụ làm cho rối loạn chuyển hóa purine trong cơ thể, đặc biệt là với bệnh nhân gout. Tiêu thụ đậu phụ làm cho nồng độ axit uric trong huyết thanh cao dễ dẫn đến các cuộc "tấn công" của bệnh gout.

Đậu phụ làm cho rối loạn chuyển hóa purine trong cơ thể, đặc biệt là với bệnh nhân gout.

 

j

 

6. Giảm đáng kể lượng tinh trùng của nam giới

Nam giới nên cẩn thận khi ăn đậu phụ và các sản phẩm đậu nành khác. Theo một số báo cáo của trường học Y tế công cộng Harvard, Mỹ, thì nếu tiêu thụ các sản phẩm đậu tương hàng ngày sẽ làm cho số lượng tinh trùng của nam giới giảm đáng kể.

Các sản phẩm đậu nành có ảnh hưởng đến hệ thống sinh sản nam giới, đặc biệt là ảnh hưởng xấu đến sự sinh tinh. Đậu nành và các sản phẩm giàu phytoestrogens isoflavone, nếu tiêu thụ sẽ ảnh hưởng đến mức độ androgen nam, dẫn đến một loạt các hậu quả xấu.

Nếu ăn quá nhiều đậu nành có thể ảnh hưởng đến số lượng tinh trùng nam. Trong 5 năm qua, những người ăn sản phẩm đậu nành sẽ có xác suất rối loạn chức năng cương dương cao hơn 3,46 lần so với những người khác.

 

j

 

Nhìn chung, đậu phụ là tốt, nhưng chúng ta không nên ăn mỗi ngày một món ăn và không ăn quá nhiều. Các người già và người bị bệnh thận, thiếu máu thiếu sắt, bệnh gút, xơ vữa động mạch... càng nên kiểm soát tiêu thụ các sản phẩm đậu nành.

 

Nguồn: Afamily
Hoang Hac

-----hết trích ----

============

Vì đậu hủ là món ăn chánh yếu của người ăn chay và một số khá đông bà con mình ngày nay. Do đó tôi lấy lại bài viết từ năm sáu năm trước xem lại và cập nhật tin tức về chuyện nầy gởi đến quí bạn nào cần đến. Bài dài lắm vì tham khảo khá nhiều, các bạn có quan tâm thì đọc nơi đây 

 

Kính thưa quí bạn,

Tôi nhận được bài ca ngơi đậu nành bên dưới qua email, cứ do dự mãi, hôm nay đành viết ít hàng lời bàn Mao tôn Cương vào đây giúp vui các bạn. Tôi do dự vì có nhiều webpage nhất là các webpage Phật Giáo trích bài lẫn nhau ca ngợi đậu nành là một loại siêu thực phẩm. Những tham khảo những tài liệu được trích dẫn trong đó có khi đã xưa cũ. Người mình cứ rập nhau ca ngợi lan truyền đi trong email trong Internet mãi mãi mà không thèm tìm hiểu coi thực tế ngoài đời hiện giờ ra sao. Vừa rồi Bác Sĩ Nguyễn ý Đức, một vị lương y đã bỏ thì giờ viết bài và giải đáp “chùa” mọi câu hỏi của bà con mình trong nước về sức khoẻ về y khoa qua các đài phát thanh nhiều năm nay, đã gọi phone cho tôi nói chuyện ngỏ ý không vui khi thấy bài Đậu Nành bên dưới của tác giả Trần Anh Kiệt đã làm cho bà con thắc mắc. Nội có một buổi sáng mà đã có ba người gọi đến hỏi Bác Sĩ Đức về bài viết nầy. May mà bà con còn biết mà hỏi, số còn lại không biết hỏi đâu chắc nhiều hơn nhiều.

 Chuyện đậu nành cũng y như chuyện ca ngợi uống trà trị được hay ít ra ngăn ngừa được 100 thứ bịnh. Một người nói ra là trăm người tin theo rập khuôn lập lại không cần đắn đo. HCĐ tôi viết mấy hàng nầy vì tha nhân, không cầu mong mưu lợi cho chính mình, và nói các sách, mách có chứng. Nếu quí bạn tin thì đọc tiếp nếu chê thì delete.

Tôi do dự viết về đậu nành vì tôi xưa nay tôi chỉ đề cập tới những information nào liên hệ và có hại cho nhiều người. Đậu nành không liên hệ tới nhiều người nên mấy năm nay tôi nín thinh. Không liên hệ tới nhiều người Việt Nam mình lý do là người mình ăn đậu nành tương đối không nhiều lắm. Tôi do dự vì có những bậc trưởng thượng tin như vậy rồi, nay tôi nói ra những gì trái lại niềm tin đó có nên chăng. Thật sự tôi không nói chi cả, tôi chỉ trình cho các bạn thấy những gì người có nghiên cứu có hiểu biết xa hơn chúng ta về đậu nành về y khoa nói ra. Các bạn cứ đọc bài bên dưới thấy đậu nành không nên thuốc không là siêu thực phẩm, mà trái lại lạm dụng có khi nguy hại. Tác giả là những người có bằng cấp cao, và với một bài viết nhỏ đã dẫn chứng từ 72 tài liệu sách vở cũng như kết quả hay những phúc trình từ những nhà khoa học liên hệ. Nhìn phần tham khảo không thôi cũng đủ chóng mặt rồi, tôi layout phần tham khảo bên dưới bằng chữ nghiêng cho các bạn dễ thấy. (Ghi chú:  nếu các bạn gởi bài nầy qua email, nó sẽ bị cắt đoạn dưới vì quá dài, nên gởi nhau qua dạng Word attached theo email, hoặc chỉ link cho bạn bè download, hoặc vào Quán Ven Đường http://huynhchieudang.googlepages.com/home  mời quí bạn vào đây lấy bài mới cập nhật nhất).

Hôm nay tôi lên tiếng về đậu nành cũng vì lý do nầy: Tôi được biết có một số cha mẹ đã cả gan cho trẻ sơ sinh bú sữa đậu nành (có khi là nước cơm) thay cho sữa mẹ hay sữa bò. Tôi nói quí vị nghe, làm hại một mạng người hay làm cho trí óc và thể xác của đứa trẻ trở thành tàn phế sau nầy thì dù cho quí vị có xây bảy đợt phù đồ đi nữa thì tội kia vẫn nặng như núi.

Mục đích thứ hai của bài nầy là tôi muốn trình bày đến các bạn cách tôi phân biệt giả trá đúng sai như thế nào trong thế giới mà tin tức và information nhiều như bèo, và thường thường rẻ như bèo vì không đáng hai xu. Định kiến của con người kỳ lắm, nó chắc còn hơn kim cương nữa, đinh đóng cột còn nhổ ra được chớ định kiến vẫn bền vững có khi đến ngày nhắm mắt.

Xin hiểu cho rằng HCĐ vì an nguy vì sức khoẻ của các bạn mà nói, không có mưu cầu bất cứ gì khác như bọn con buôn gộc dùng Internet quảng bá tin tức sai lầm có lợi cho chúng mà hai nhóm “gộc” nhất là trà Tàu và mọi loại lá cay được chúng nó gán cho cái tên giả hiệu là trà và và nhóm thứ hai là “tư bản đậu nành”. Kỹ nghệ đậu nành hốt bạc tỉ, trong khi bản thân hột đậu nành rẻ đến độ dùng nuôi gia súc. Tôi biết người Pháp và dân chúng Âu Châu nói chung rất kị thực phẩm nhóm Genetic engineering theo tài liệu tôi có 90% đậu nành bán cho chúng ta ăn là nhóm nầy. (trang 40 của bài nầy).

Tác giả Trần Anh Kiệt dưới đây không “ân oán giang hồ” chi với tôi cả, lần đầu tiên tôi thấy tên và lần đầu tiên tôi đọc bài Đậu Nành của tác giả, tôi dùng bài nầy làm thí dụ hoàn toàn không ác ý chi cả. Bất cứ tác giả nào viết ra bài thì độc giả nào cũng có quyền khen chê phê bình phải không, đó là tự do ngôn luận. Nếu tình cờ tác giả đọc được bài nầy thì xin lên tiếng, khi cần tôi hứa sẽ dành chỗ cho tác giả phát biểu đến mọi độc giả của bài nầy.

Quí bạn thương thì HCD tôi cười trừ mà ghét cũng vậy vì tôi chỉ là ảo ảnh. Chữ màu tím là của tôi, chữ đen là nguyên văn được trích (nguyên bài). Sau đây là lời bàn giúp vui các bạn viết xen vào bằng chữ tím.

Huỳnh Chiếu Đẳng 17-Oct-2008 (xem lại ngày 18-Oct-2008)

Ghi chú: nếu các bạn chuyển đi thì nên chuyển nguyên vẹn, tôi đã nhận được bài bar code do tôi vạch mặt, đã bị người ta cắt đầu, còn khúc đuôi chuyển cho nhau, y như giúp giáo cho giặc.

 

 

Bài nầy nhận được qua email: chữ màu đen là của tác giả, màu tím là của HCĐ

Đậu Nành

Trần Anh Kiệt

Đậu nành là một loại thực vật quen thuộc đối với người Việt Nam mình. Nó là một thứ nguyên liệu dùng để chế biến các loại tương, chao, đậu hủ và một số thực phẩm chay lạt khác. Hiện nay trên thế giới người ta sản xuất rất nhiều đậu nành để làm thực phẩm cho người và cho gia súc. Đối với các loại rau quả, ngũ cốc và thịt động vật, đậu nành chứa một trữ lượng chất Protein dồi dào hơn cả. Theo tự điển bách khoa World Book, đậu nành chứa đến 40 phần trăm chất Protein so với cùng trọng lượng thịt bò và cá chỉ chứa có 18 phần trăm protein mà thôi. Theo sách 'Một trăm Cây Thuốc Vạn Linh Bá chứng' của Linh mục Vũ Đình Trác, đậu nành có đặc tính giải nhiệt, lợi khí và tăng lực. Chủ trị điều hòa ngũ tạng, bổ nguyên khí và thông lợi 12 kinh mạch. Đặc biệt đậu nành chống được tà khí, trợ ruột, giúp làm ấm tỳ vị, nhất là bồi bổ tim, thận và trị bệnh của thận. Lá đậu nành có đặc tính an thần và giúp dễ ngủ.

Về cái đặc tính giải nhiệt, lợi khí và tăng lực nầy thì nhường cho quí vị thầy thuốc bắc thuốc nam nhận xét. Riêng về protein thì tác giả nói sai rồi. Dùng đậu nành hột khô queo so với thịt cá chứa nhiều nước thì so làm sao cho được. Phơi khô thịt cá cho nước bay hơi hết đi coi cái nào nhiều protein thì biết liền. Kiểu so sánh nầy không khoa học và không công bằng. (đây là điểm để HCĐ tôi phân biệt coi tài liệu đáng tin hay không). Nhớ là protein của đậu nành thiếu một vài amino acid thiết yếu (essential amino acid). Không có sự hiện diện của nó thì nhiều protein cũng chẳng lợi chi hết. Tám amino acids được coi là essential cho con người là: phenylalanine, valine, threonine, tryptophan, isoleucine, methionine, leucine, và lysine. Đậu nành thiếu một vài cái trong nhóm nầy. Những cái nầy cơ thể thiếu thì không làm nên được máu xương thịt… điều nầy khỏi chứng minh, vì khi đi học ở trung học chúng ta được giảng rõ rồi.

Đó là chưa kể tới nấu lên thì nếu đem đậu nành “cooking protein has been shown to destroy up to 50% of some essential amino acids. If an individual consistently consumes a diet that is lacking in all of the essential amino acids, inadequate brain development and hormones or other body tissue development can be the result.” Đại để là nấu lên thì essential amino acids bị huỷ tới 50%, con người mà ăn thực phẩm thiếu essential amino acids thì bộ óc kém phát triển, hormone và xươung thị không phát triển được (câu tiếng Anh không do tôi viết vào đây nghe). Mà đậu nành không nấu chín thì làm sao mà ăn.

 

Hiện nay trước tình trạng bệnh nan y đang lan tràn trên thế giới, các khoa học gia đã nghiên cứu đủ mọi phương pháp để phòng chống kể cả áp dụng phương pháp dưỡng sinh, y thuật Đông Phương và dược thảo. Trong quá trình nghiên cứu, các khoa học gia đã để ý tới hai nước Trung Hoa và Nhật Bản. Phần đông dân chúng trong hai quốc gia này có thói quen tiêu thụ đậu nành và những sản phẩm của đậu nành trong các bữa ăn thường nhật. Nên tỷ số những người mắc bệnh nan y rất thấp so với các nước Tây Phương và Hoa Kỳ. Vì thế họ đổ xô nhau đi nghiên cứu về đặc tính của đậu nành để xem có thể ứng dụng vào y dược để điều trị một số bệnh tật hay không.

Tạm đồng ý là hai nước Nhật và Trung Quốc ăn nhiều đậu nành đi, (cái nầy phải dựa vào thống kê nghe lúc nào ở đâu tỉ lệ ra sao), nhưng nói tỉ lệ người mắc bịnh nan y ở Trung Quốc rất thấp thì còn hỏi lại. Tuổi thọ trung bình của người Trung Quốc thấp hơn so với mấy nước tây phưong. Nếu đậu nành ngừa được bịnh nan y, người Trung Quốc ít bịnh nan y, thì tuổi thọ người Trung Quốc phải cao hơn thế giới. Ngay như tuồi thọ người Nhật cũng đâu có hơn mấy nước khác. Nếu đậu nành nên thuốc và ngừa bá chứng thì thực tế dân ăn nhiều đậu nành như Trung Quốc phải có tuổi thọ và sức khoẻ hơn dân ở nước ăn ít đậu nành và sống lâu hơn mới phải.

Còn nói các nhà khoa học đổ xô đi tìm thì quả là không có rồi. Khỏi đổ xô đi tìm thế mà viết một bài ngắn bên dưới nhan đề “Newest Research On Why You Should Avoid Soy” (tạm dịch: Những Cuộc Nghiên Cứu Mới Nhất về Tại Sao Các Bạn Nên Tránh Đậu Nành) tác giả Sally Fallon & Mary G. Enig, Ph.D. đã tham khảo 70 nguồn tài liệu và nghiên cứu khác nhau về đậu nành. Vậy thì đậu nành có trị bịnh hay ngừa được bịnh hay không thì “họ”đã trả lời ngay trong nhan đề bài viết của hai tác giả Mỹ nói trên rồi.

Tháng 9 năm 1996, hội nghị quốc tế lần thứ hai nhằm tổng kết các thành quả nghiên cứu của khoa học gia về công dụng của đậu nành trong lãnh vực y học đã được diễn ra trong 5 ngày liền tại Brussels . Hơn 80 khoa học gia đến từ khắp nơi trên thế giới đã lần lượt thuyết trình về những kết quả sưu tầm mới nhất mà họ đã thu đạt được trong lãnh vực y khoa trị liệu. Sau đây chúng tôi xin tóm tắt những thành quả đó và coi như là những tin vui để cống hiến quý vị độc giả.

Ngộ quá tay, 80 khoa học gia nầy nói cùng một luận điệu về đậu nành quả thật là điều lạ, ai hổ trợ tài chánh cho hội nghị vậy. Mà thôi tìm hiểu mất thì giờ quá, cứ tin vậy đi. Còn những khoa học gia được tham khảo bên dưới bài nầy phần chữ nghiêng, thì chắc không được tài trợ nên mới nói ngược lại 80 người kia.

          1. Đậu Nành Có Khả Năng Chữa Được Bệnh Tim Mạch

Hiện nay nhiều bằng chứng cụ thể cho thấy đậu nành có khả năng làm giảm lượng cholesterol của những người bị bệnh cao mỡ. Những bệnh nhân này nếu để lâu sẽ dẫn đến bệnh tim trầm trọng và có nguy cơ bị chết bất đắc kỳ tử vì mạch máu bị nghẽn hay tim bị kích ngất. Thực ra chất Protein trong đậu nành có khả năng làm hạ mức độ hai độc tố LDL Cholesterol và Triglyceride, tác nhân gây ra bệnh cao mỡ. Kết quả này rất khả quan và công hiệu hơn hẳn việc trị liệu bằng phương pháp ăn uống theo qui thức do các chuyên gia y tế ấn định, kể cả việc chữa được các chứng bệnh cao mỡ trầm trọng và bệnh cao mỡ ở trẻ con.

Thêm vào đó, đậu nành còn có khả năng làm tăng lượng HDL cholesterol, một chất hữu ích trong cơ thể có tác dụng đề kháng lại hai chất LDL Cholesterol và Triglyceride độc hại kể trên. Ngoài ra đậu nành cũng còn có công hiệu ngăn chận sự oxýt hóa của chất LDL Cholesterol, không cho chúng có cơ hội chuyển hóa thành những nguyên tố độc hại khác, và phòng ngừa được chứng nghẽn các mao huyết quản.

Cái nầy không thấy đưa ra chứng minh hay ít ra nói chất nào trong đậu nành ngăn chận sự oxýt hóa của chất LDL Cholesterol để người ta còn tham khảo đúng hay sai, nói khơi khơi đậu nành thì tôi bắt chước sẽ nói với mọi người rằng “nước lã có khả năng ngăn ngừa cholesterol”.

Isoflavones là một hợp chất thiên nhiên hàm chứa trong đậu nành có cấu trúc hóa học tương tợ như kích thích tố nữ oestrogen. Hiện thời người ta chưa chứng minh được chính protein trong đậu nành hay chỉ riêng chất Isoflavones trong protein của đậu nành là có công hiệu chữa các chứng bệnh trên. Tuy nhiên các khoa học gia đều đồng quan điểm rằng đậu nành nói chung có khả năng trị được bệnh tim mạch, đặc biệt là chứng cao Cholesterol trong máu.

Tác giả đọc phần tiểu tựa “FDA Health Claim Challenged” (bài bên dưới, dùng search trong Microsoft Word để tìm cho dễ) là hết nói hạ cholesterol một chiều như trên. Ngoài ra cái chất hóa học tương tợ như kích thích tố nữ oestrogen nầy thật là đáng ngại, không tin đọc bài tiếng Việt ngay bên dưới của Bác Sĩ Phạm Năng Cường thì biết tại sao (trích: Đậu nành có thể làm cho nam giới vô sinh (ít tinh trùng) vì nó có chứa estrogen. Chúng tôi đề nghị các ông phải ngưng ăn đậu nành trước 3 tháng nếu muốn có con). Sẽ trở lại về chất oestrogen.

 

 

          2. Đậu Nành Chữa Được Bệnh Của Xương

Xưa nay các chuyên gia y tế đều công nhận calcium có khả năng phòng ngừa được bệnh xương xốp (osteoporosis), thường xảy ra trong giới phụ nữ trọng tuổi. Bệnh này cũng có xảy ra cho nam giới nhưng với một tỷ lệ thấp hơn. Ngoài ra sự ăn uống theo quy thức cũng có khả năng làm cho xương được rắn chắc. Tuy nhiên các nghiên cứu gần đây cho thấy những người thường ăn đậu nành như dân chúng Nhật Bản cũng ít khi mắc phải bệnh xương xốp.

Người ta thí nghiệm trên loài chuột bằng cách cho chúng ăn toàn đậu nành không những ngăn chận được chứng thoái hóa calcium của xương mà còn làm cho xương được rắn chắc. Isoflavones trong đậu nành là một chất có tính năng động có tác dụng giống như oestrogen ngăn ngừa được chất men tyrosin kinase làm cho xương bị xốp và dễ gãy. Nó cũng còn trợ giúp cho tế bào xương hình thành vững vàng.

Oestrogen (hormone, kích thích tố nữ) chỉ có giá trị ngăn ngừa rổng xương cho quí bà thôi nghe, mà xưa rồi, đọc tiếp sẽ thấy tại sao.  

Một cuộc thí nghiệm khác được thực hiện bằng cách cắt bỏ noãn sào (buồng trứng) của chuột cái để cho nó không sản xuất ra kích thích tố oestrogen nữa, rồi cho chúng ăn toàn bằng đậu nành. Chất Isoflavones trong đậu nành vẫn ngăn chận được sự thoái hóa của xương và làm cho xương luôn luôn khỏe mạnh.

Phải nói thêm là nam giới ăn kích thích tố nữ vào cơ thể cho nhiều thì ra sao nè. Nói một chiều khi qúi ông tin tưởng ăn vào cho nhiều dám kéo nhau từng cập từng cập đi “San Francisco” lắm đó.

Cái nguy hại là đậu nành “có” oestrogen (kích thích tố nữ). Nếu tôi so sánh thì sẽ nói thế nầy: qúi bà mà uống kích thích tố nam (testosterone) vào nhiều dám mọc râu lắm đó. Chuyện chống rổng xương bằng cách dùng kích thích tố nữ chỉ có giá trị cho qúi bà thôi và xưa rồi. Có hai trường phái trong giới y khoa, hình như người ta e ngại ung thư ngực nên ngả về phía tự nhiên (nghĩa là không dùng kích thích tố).Trích câu chữ nghiêng bên dưới để các bạn đọc chơi cho qúi bà sợ chơi. Mà qúi ông cũng không dám cho vợ ăn đậu nành nhiều, ngoại trừ có “ý đồ”.

The study is the first to show that the actual physical organization of a region of the brain that is important for female reproduction can be significantly altered by exposure to phytoestrogens – or plant-produced chemicals that mimic hormones – during development. Specifically, the study finds that the compounds alter the sex-specific organization of the hypothalamus – a brain region that is essential to the regulation of puberty and ovulation. The study also shows that the phytoestrogens could cause long-term effects on the female reproductive system.(nguồn của câu nầy: http://ihealthbulletin.com/blog/2008/08/01/isoflavone-genistein-from-soy-likely-affects-female-brain-and-sexual-development/)

Những nghiên cứu gần đây cho biết những phụ nữ sau thời kỳ tắt kinh, mỗi ngày dùng bột hay sữa đậu nành thường xuyên thì mật độ khoáng chất trong xương vẫn duy trì ở mức độ bình thường. Hiện nay tại Úc Châu xưởng bào chế dược phẩm đã sản xuất ra thuốc bằng đậu nành để cho người phụ nữ trong tuổi tắt kinh sử dụng hằng ngày rất tiện lợi.

Cái nầy mập mờ đánh lận con đen đây. Các bạn nhớ là dược phẩm khác, mà mấy chai “thuốc số 35 bỗ dương” khác xa nghe. Muốn xin được “bằng cấp” là thuốc thì trần ai gian khổ. Còn xin được bằng cấp là “thuốc chai số 35, chai số 70/2 hiệu con dê xồm” thì dễ ợt. Nói Úc Châu chấp nhận làm bà con tưởng thiệt thì tội quá. Các bạn chưa biết tại sao thì rán chịu, HCD tôi nói ra rả mấy năm rồi còn trong Quán Ven Đường. Có duyên thì đọc, không duyên thì cứ tin sao cũng chẳng hại ai, chỉ hại một mình bạn hay thân nhân quí bạn mà thôi.

Thưa ngại lắm lắm, nhưng nói quanh co nhẹ nhàng thì có người không để ý. Ờ mà suy ra thì người không để ý cũng chẳng hại chi cho tôi, làm mích lòng bà con mới tai hại.

          3. Đậu Nành Có Thể Phòng Chống Được Bệnh Ung Thư

 Qua những nghiên cứu gần đây, các khoa học gia ghi nhận những người thường dùng đậu nành hoặc các sản phẩm của đậu nành trong khẩu phần ăn uống hằng ngày ít có nguy cơ bị bệnh ung thư nhũ hoa, tử cung, ruột già và nhiếp hộ tuyến. Các nghiên cứu khác được thực hiện trên cơ thể súc vật bằng cách gây cho chúng bị nhiễm bệnh ung thư rồi dùng chất genistein hàm chứa trong đậu nành để chữa trị thì thấy nó ngăn chận được sự phát triển của bịnh ung thư ruột già, gan và vú.

Người ta còn nghiên cứu bằng cách giả tạo một sự sống như thể trạng thật của một con người đang bị nhiễm bệnh ung thư và đặt trong ống nghiệm. Sau đó họ trích các hợp chất từ đậu nành để chữa trị và đạt được kết quả hữu hiệu. Những hợp chất này còn có khả năng ngăn chận sự cung cấp máu để nuôi dưỡng một loại tế bào đặc biệt có khuynh hướng hình thành các bướu ung thư.

Hiện nay các thí nghiệm được thực hiện trên cơ thể của loài thú về khả năng chống bệnh ung thư của đậu nành đã thành công một cách tốt đẹp. Tuy nhiên đối với con người cần phải thực hiện thêm nhiều cuộc thí nghiệm khác nữa để xác dịnh mức độ hữu hiệu và an toàn rồi mới công bố để sử dụng..

Gần đây khoa học gia Yehudith Birk của trường Đại học Hebrew ở Jerusalem đã thực hiện được một vài phương pháp đáng khích lệ, có thể chữa được bệnh ung thư ở nhiều cấp độ trầm trọng và trong nhiều bộ phận cơ thể khác nhau mà không cần biết bệnh đã phát sinh vì nguyên do gì. Hiện nay Cơ quan Quản Trị Thực Phẩm và Dược Phẩm Hoa Kỳ đang cho phép áp dụng phương pháp này để điều trị một số bệnh nhân tình nguyện trong bệnh viện để thí nghiệm và kiểm chứng. Saponin và những hợp chất khác của đậu nành cũng đang được nghiên cứu và áp dụng. Mong rằng cuộc thí nghiệm này được sớm thành công và sẽ mang lại một tin vui cho nhân loại trên toàn thế giới.

Mời đọc câu trích nghiêng bên dưới với đầy đủ tham khảo và chứng cớ coi sao women should not consume soy products to prevent breast cancer.

Thousands of women are now consuming soy in the belief that it protects them against breast cancer. Yet, in 1996, researchers found that women consuming soy protein isolate had an increased incidence of epithelial hyperplasia, a condition that presages malignancies.45 A year later, dietary genistein was found to stimulate breast cells to enter the cell cycle - a discovery that led the study authors to conclude that women should not consume soy products to prevent breast cancer. 46 (trích bài bên dưới)

 

          4. Đậu Nành Và Bệnh Thận

 Trong lãnh vực này, người ta nghiên cứu một cách lẻ tẻ và hiện chưa có một kết quả thỏa đáng nào. Song vài thí nghiệm cho thấy đậu nành cũng có ích lợi trong việc chữa trị bệnh thận. Các khoa học gia của Ấn Độ đã chứng minh quy thức ăn uống bằng cách tiêu thụ rất ít chất béo và chất protein rồi phối hợp thêm đậu nành trong khẩu phần hằng ngày có công hiệu giảm được chất cholesterol trong máu.

Các cuộc thí nghiệm khác trên loài chuột chứng minh được chất Genistein trong đậu nành có thể làm cho mạch máu được thư dãn và giảm chế được tốc độ lọc máu của thận, nên tránh được bệnh tiểu đường. Người ta đã trích hợp chất trong đậu nành để tiêm cho những con bò đã bị gây bệnh tiểu đường thì thấy tốc độ lọc máu của chúng trở lại mức độ bình thường.

Các bạn đọc câu nầy đi: giảm chế được tốc độ lọc máu của thận, nên tránh được bệnh tiểu đường. Giãm chế độ lọc máu thì có ăn nhậu thù tạc chi với bịnh tiểu đường loại 1 và loại 2 đâu. Thận không chịu lọc máu bình thường mà làm biếng thì người ăn đậu nành sẽ ngất ngư con tàu đi ngay. Nếu quả đúng như tác giả nói thì đậu nành là thuốc độc.

 

Còn trị bịnh hay gây thêm bịnh thận thì câu trả lời có chứng cớ đây nè (trích chữ nghiêng)

Aluminum content of soy formula is 10 times greater than milk based formula, and 100 times greater than unprocessed milk. Aluminum has a toxic effect on the kidneys of infants, and has been implicated as cause in Alzheimer's in adults. (trích trong bài tiếng Anh bên dưới)

 

 

          5. Đậu Nành Và ảnh Hưởng Sinh Lý Của Phụ Nữ

 Aedin Cassidy và các khoa học gia của Anh Quốc đã ngiên cứu biết được đậu nành điều hòa chu kỳ kinh nguyệt của phụ nữ và kềm chế được sự phát triển quá mức kích thích tố oestrogen của phụ nữ trẻ tuổi. Vì khi kích thích tố này phát triển quá nhiều, người phụ nữ sẽ có sát suất dễ bị bệnh ung thư nhũ hoa hơn.

Đối với những phụ nữ sau thời kỳ tắt kinh, dùng đến 40% đậu nành trong khẩu phần ăn uống hàng ngày sẽ không cần phải uống thuốc hồi phục kích thích tố mà vẫn có thể phòng ngừa được bệnh xương xốp. Nếu cảm thấy ăn uống bất tiện thì có thể dùng oestrogen thiên nhiên được bào chế thành thuốc viên từ đậu nành hiện có bày bán hợp pháp tại các tiệm dược phẩm.

Cái nầy có đúng hay sai thì đọc tiểu tựa “II. Về mặt độc hại” ngay bên dưới và câu trích ngay đây:

The study is the first to show that the actual physical organization of a region of the brain that is important for female reproduction can be significantly altered by exposure to phytoestrogens – or plant-produced chemicals that mimic hormones – during development. Specifically, the study finds that the compounds alter the sex-specific organization of the hypothalamus – a brain region that is essential to the regulation of puberty and ovulation. The study also shows that the phytoestrogens could cause long-term effects on the female reproductive system.(nguồn của câu nầy: http://ihealthbulletin.com/blog/2008/08/01/isoflavone-genistein-from-soy-likely-affects-female-brain-and-sexual-development/)

.

 

          6. Đậu Nành Và Sức Khỏe Của Trẻ Con

 Tại New Zealand , người ta thí nghiệm bằng cách nuôi những con vẹt bằng bột đậu nành theo công thức sữa nuôi trẻ con và báo cáo rằng không có ảnh hưởng gì xấu đối với sự sinh sản và cơ quan sinh thực của chúng. Tuy nhiên thí nghiệm ở loài vật có kết quả chưa hẳn sẽ trùng hợp với thí nghiệm ở loài người.

Dữ ác hôn, nói một câu nghe được. Trẻ con trai mà cho ăn đậu nành miết thì sau nầy chẳng biết nó lớn lên nó là nam hay nữ mới chết chớ.

Còn trẻ em gái nhỏ xíu mà cho ăn kích thích tố nữ trong đậu nành hàng ngày thì ra sao, các bạn nói tiếp đi. Không biết rõ mà cứ ca tụng là giết người ta. các bạn có muốn uống hormone hay ăn thịt gia súc chích hormone không? Nếu không sao xúi con cái mình ăn?

Trong thập niên qua, ông Kenneth Setchel, chuyên gia nghiên cứu về đậu nành đã báo cáo rằng trẻ con được nuôi dưỡng với sữa đậu nành có công thức Isoflavones cao vẫn được an toàn. Trong nhiều năm nuôi dưỡng như vậy cũng không có ảnh hưởng gì xấu cho đứa bé cả.

Các bạn tin tác giả thì cứ đem con mình ra thử. Tôi nghi một chút thôi là tránh liền.

Khoa học gia Alercreutz bảo rằng người Á Châu thường ăn uống nhiều đậu nành hơn không có ảnh gì bất lợi cho việc sinh sản của họ cả. Chất Isoflavones tập trung trong thủy dịch bao bọc chung quanh bào thai tương đồng với mức độ Isoflavones trong máu của một người mẹ bình thường.

Có ảnh hưởng chớ sao không, chính tác giả mới nói bên trên mà. Nhắc lại như thế nầy đi: một người phụ nữ bình thường sinh sản bình thường như một người trung bình khác trong xã hội. Giờ đây người đó uống thêm oestrogen hàng ngày thì tôi hỏi các bạn chớ kích thích tố nữ uống vào nầy có ảnh hưởng tới việc sinh sản hay không? Các bạn trả lời rồi phải không.

Ở Nhật Bản, trẻ con khoảng 4 tháng tuổi là đã cho dứt sữa mẹ và được thay thế bằng sữa đậu nành, được bảo đảm rằng nó sẽ có đầy đủ sức khỏe trong tương lai vào thời kỳ khôn lớn. Lamartinière đã thí nghiệm bằng cách cho chuột ăn chất Genistein của đậu nành sẽ tránh được bệnh ung thư vú về sau. Hiện thời người ta vẫn còn nghiên cứu để xác định rõ ràng vai trò của đậu nành trong việc nuôi dưỡng trẻ con quan trọng như thế nào.

Chính chỗ nầy mà tôi nín không được nên mới viết lời bàn Mao Tôn Cương vào bài nầy đây. Bằng hữu nào ở bên Nhật lên tiếng giùm coi có thật người ta cho con trẻ bú sữa đậu nành thay sữa mẹ sữa bò sau 4 tháng tuổi không? Và ai bào đảm khi lớn lên nó không nữa trai nữa gái hay không khoẻ mạnh bình thường. Nghe lới tác giả làm theo sau nầy con các bạn vài mươi tuổi rồi nó kiện ai đây.

Chính chỗ nầy mà HCĐ tôi vung gậy đây, bao giờ cây gậy HTC cũng vì đa số mà đập những tin vịt, những bày biểu tầm bậy. Trí óc trẻ con đang phát triển, cần đủ protein, tức là amino acid dưới mọi dạng (tất cả 21 amino acid). Đậu nành không đủ amino acid thiết yếu (essential) tuy rằng nó có thành phần protein cao như thịt cá. Cho trẻ con ăn hay uống đậu nành thì chuyện trước tiên là trí óc chúng không phát triển bình thường. Các bạn muốn con mình sáng dạ hay tối dạ, đó là chưa nói thể xác chúng cũng èo uột theo vì thiếu amino acid thiết yếu nên không tạo được xương thịt.

Tóm lại, qua sự trình bày trên đây, chúng ta thấy quả thật đậu nành đã có công hiệu đối với việc phòng ngừa và chữa trị một số bệnh tật. Tuy nhiên vì bản thân nó xuất xứ từ một loại thảo mộc tầm thường nên trong dân gian ít ai để ý tới. Tại Hoa Kỳ, người ta đang nghiên cứu dể nắm vững các chứng minh cụ thể về công dụng của đậu nành rồi mới chính thức đưa vào y khoa trị liệu.

Tầm bậy rồi, tại Mỹ không ai đưa đậu nành vào y khoa trị liệu hết, chỉ có đưa thuốc tây vào việc trị liệu thôi, còn “thuốc con dê chai số 35” thì cũng chỉ là đậu nành hay là cơm nguội thôi, không Bác Sĩ nào dùng để trị cho mình hay trị cho người đâu.

Còn nghiên cứu về đậu nành thì nhiều nhiều vô kể, kết luận của những nghiên cứu nầy trở thành nhan đề những bài viết:

by Christa Novelli, M.P.H.

 

Chẳng cần đọc nguyên bài thấy cái tựa bài đã ớn lạnh rồi. Những bài có tựa trên nằm bên dưới hai bài tiếng Việt với đầy đủ nguồn gốc sách vở tài liệu của các cuộc nghện cứu, nội vụ khoảng 100 tham khảo. Bạn nào không tin thì đọc cho thấy sợ. (Nếu gởi trực tiếp qua email thì có thể khúc sau đoạn nầy sẽ bị cắt vì quá dài, gởi qua email bằng attachment mới trọn vẹn)

Ghi chú: các bạn không có thì giờ đọc hết thì cứ đọc tiểu tựa được high light màu đỏ cũng đủ thấy sợ rồi.

Tại Úc Châu tầm mức của đậu nành có khả năng y dược chưa được đặt thành đề tài nghiên cứu quan trọng. Tuy nhiên trong thời gian gần đây người ta đã bắt đầu sử dụng đậu nành để sản xuất chất oestrogen nhân tạo và được bày bán trong các nhà thuốc tây một cách hợp pháp để cho các phụ nữ trong tuổi tắt kinh sử dụng hàng ngày rất tiện lợi.

Ô hay, Úc là quốc gia phát triển sao lại dùng đậu nành làm kích thích tố nữ, còn những cách sản xuất oestrogen xưa nay đã được hoàn chỉnh theo thời gian bỏ cho chuột tha sao. “Thuốc con dê xồm chai số 35” cũng được các nhà thuốc tây tại Mỹ bán hợp pháp từ khuya rồi, nhưng nó đâu phải là thuốc. Dùng chữ thuốc mập mờ gạt thiên hạ ác đức thất nhơn quá.

Mong rằng trong tương lai, những công dụng khác của đậu nành trong lãnh vực y dược sẽ còn được quảng bá rộng rãi hơn nữa và sẽ mang lại nhiều hữu ích thiết thực trong việc bảo vệ sức khỏe của con người.

Người Á Châu mình đã biết dùng đậu nành để chế biến nhiều loại thức ăn. Tuy không nghiên cứu rõ ràng, nhưng may mắn ngẫu nhiên trùng hợp về giá trị dinh dưỡng đặc biệt của nó.

Trần Anh Kiệt

 

Tới đây mà dừng e bậc tôn túc quở. Các bạn ơi thời buổi nầy lòng người gian trá, chỉ biết mưu lợi cho mình, hại người không thương xót. Tôi không tin tác giả Trần anh Kiệt có ý xấu, tác giả có lòng tốt muốn quảng bá cho mọi người biết một tin trật lất, làm giàu cho kẻ lợi dụng. Kẻ lợi dụng ngay đây, các bạn cứ đọc cái tựa nầy : Soy: For Your Health or Their Wealth? Thì thấy ngay âm mưu của nguyên một tập đoàn tư bản, y như âm mưu của thương gia Trung Quốc nói chung tung tin trà là tiên dược vậy.

 

Người Việt Nam chúng ta dễ tin, khổ quá. Trái cây nhân sâm Thái Lan là trò con nít vậy mà cứ chuyền nhau tin ầm ầm. Một bằng hữu MTC có bạn ở tại Thái Lan 30 năm, người Việt Nam làm cho CIA, có vợ Thái nói rành tiếng Thái, thấy cái PPS của HCĐ vạch mặt trái cây hình người (Thái Lan) ba xạo, bèn gởi email chuyền (forward) nói rằng tại Thái không có cây ba xạo nầy, nhưng người Thái thường treo hình nhựa lạ lùng lên cây chơi vậy thôi. Mỗi ngày tin vịt mỗi nhiều, email được chuyền cho nhau như thuốc súng. Ngay như tin làm măng tre bằng đủa cây cũng được loan truyền, xuất xứ của nó là do con nít người Hoa đùa chơi, vậy mà người lớn Việt Nam lại tin rầm rầm.

 

Tôi vì đa số mà viết mấy hàng nầy làm cho một số người ghét hay trách móc. Xin quí vị hiểu cho rằng bài được viết dựa vào thực tế không liên hệ chi tới tôn giáo hay đến quí vị tu hành ăn chay mà thực phẩm chính yếu là đậu nành.

Tôi không có ý bài bác ăn chay đâu nghe, quí vị mà chụp cho tôi cái mủ thì chắc là do lúc nhỏ quí vị đã bị thay sữa mẹ sữa bò bằng sữa đậu nành.

- Thôi nghe nói chuyện đúng đắn một chút được không, chỗ nào cũng đùa coi hỏng được.

Xin tuân lịnh. Ủa sao các bạn không hỏi gì hết vậy. Không hỏi cũng trả lời:

Huỳnh Chiếu Đẳng  (viết tại nước Mỹ 17-Oct-2008 xem lại 18-Oct-2008).

Ghi chú: Nếu quí bạn đọc tới đây mà thấy HCD có lý hay ít ra có lợi được chút nào thì xin chuyển (forward) email nầy đi đến nhiều bạn bè, để tránh chuyện lạm dụng đậu nành e có hại cho thế hệ mai sau. Hoặc có khi cha mẹ sẽ ân hận suốt đời vì tin vào nhưng lời khuyên sai lầm.

Sở dĩ tôi kêu gọi các bạn chuyễn giùm là vì tôi e ngại bài của tác giả Trần Anh Kiệt được loan đi nhiều quá mà không có tiếng nói để kềm bớt lại e mọi người nghe tin một chiều có hại.

Ngay những gì HCD viết nơi đây các bạn cũng đừng tin. Tự các bạn so sánh hơn thiệt. Một bài viết khơi khơn như tác giả Trần Anh Kiệt so với một bài viết có tham khảo tới 72 nguồn tài liệu của Sally Fallon and Mary G. Enig, PhD, thì các bạn biết ngay bài nào đáng tin hơn.

 

 

Bài thứ hai nói ngược lại bài trên của Bác Sĩ Phạm Năng Cường.

Nguồn gốc bài nầy

http://www.ykhoanet.com/duoc/dinhduong/57-16.html

 

 

ĂN ĐẬU NÀNH CÓ ĐỘC KHÔNG?

BS. PHẠM NẮNG CƯỜNG

LTS: Đã từ lâu, các chế phẩm của đậu nành như đậu phụ, sữa... trở thành thực phẩm quen thuộc với chúng ta. Các chế phẩm này ngon, hợp khẩu vị, nhất là nó được xem như loại thực phẩm lành tính chỉ có lợi cho sức khỏe, hoàn toàn vô hại. Thế nhưng, bài viết dưới đây của BS. Phạm Năng Cường (dựa theo một tài liệu khoa học của nước ngoài) lại cho rằng dùng đậu nành có hại như: có thể làm nam giới vô sinh, dễ gây ung thư... Tòa soạn xin giới thiệu bài viết này để bạn đọc tham khảo và mong các chuyên gia về dinh dưỡng có ý kiến.

Tôi mới nhận được tài liệu về dinh dưỡng trị liệu do BS Nguyễn Xuân Thuyên - người Mỹ gốc Việt gửi tặng, trong đó có nêu rõ cái lợi và cái hại của đậu nành như sau:

1. Về mặt lợi

BS đã nêu rằng: Trên thế giới người ta đã thống kê được trên 1.000 loại đậu nành gồm đủ cỡ (to nhỏ) và sắc màu (đỏ, vàng, xanh, nâu và cả đen). Lại có ghi: Đậu nành ít chất bột, nhiều đạm và dầu, giá rất rẻ được dùng làm thực phẩm chế biến đủ loại như đậu phụ, dầu đậu nành, tương sữa đậu nành, bột đậu nành, sốt đậu nành và miso... Đậu nành còn được chế biến thành bơ margarines, kể cả xà bông và plastic. Nước Mỹ hiện dẫn đầu thế giới về xuất cảng và sản xuất, chế biến đậu nành. Trước đây các nhà khảo cứu đã chỉ ra lợi ích của đậu nành như làm giảm cholesterol trong máu do có 4 chất là: chất xơ, chất saponins, chất phytosterols và cả chất lecithin cùng lượng nhỏ vitamine E, đậu nành còn là chất chống ung thư nhờ các chất như: protease inhibitors, trypsin inhibitor, isoflavones, polyphenols, phytate, và methionine.

II. Về mặt độc hại

Nhưng đậu nành cũng độc hại không kém, nhất là đậu phụ và tàu hũ (óc đậu) hoặc các sản phẩm làm đông đặc theo phương pháp Tây Âu ví dụ: enzyme inhibitors làm ngăn cản hoạt động của trypsin và các enzymes khác cần cho hấp thu chất protein, làm thiếu hụt chất đạm nghiêm trọng có thể gây viêm tụy (trên súc vật) và ung thư(?) Nó còn có hóa chất hemaglutinin làm cho hồng cầu bị vón và giảm hấp thu dưỡng khí. Đậu nành còn có lượng phytic acids cao, thường có ở vỏ hạt làm cản trở sự hấp thu các chất khoáng rất quan trọng như: calcium, mangesium, sắt, kẽm qua ruột (thường thấy ở những người ăn chay trường). Trong khi chế biến, các nhà sản xuất thường ngâm đậu nành trong dung dịch kiềm (alkaline) sau đó đun ở 115oC trong nồi áp suất. Cách này làm chất đạm khó tiêu hóa được và chất phytate trong sữa đậu nành ngăn cản các chất khoáng vào máu, nguy hiểm hơn là chất kiềm dùng để ngâm còn có mầm ung thư lysinealine, giảm chất cystine trong đậu nành đưa đến vô dụng các chất đạm nếu không ăn thêm các chất thịt, cá, trứng và sản phẩm làm từ sữa động vật. Sữa đậu nành cho trẻ em cùng với chất trypsin inhibitors có chứa lượng cao nhất phytate khiến cho trẻ bị thiếu kẽm. Còn chất nhôm lại cao hơn gấp 10 lần so với sữa thường và 100 lần so với sữa chưa chế biến. Tình trạng dị ứng do ăn đậu nành rất thường gặp, vả lại trong sữa đậu nành cho trẻ em còn thiếu chất cholesterol là chất thiết yếu cho sự phát triển não bộ và hệ thống thần kinh. Điều làm tôi sửng sốt trong phần kết thúc, mục Bạn có biết? tác giả ghi nguyên văn:

- Đậu nành có thể làm cho nam giới vô sinh (ít tinh trùng) vì nó có chứa estrogen. Chúng tôi đề nghị các ông phải ngưng ăn đậu nành trước 3 tháng nếu muốn có con(?)

- Phải chăng việc chế biến đậu nành còn quan trọng hơn cả thành phần cấu tạo của nó(?)

- Phải chăng đậu nành chỉ tốt với người cao tuổi còn tuổi trẻ thì không(?)

Chắc sẽ có quý vị hỏi: Liệu tác giả đó muốn gì? Và tài liệu kia ra sao? Xin thưa, tác giả đó chỉ hoan nghênh cách chế biến cổ truyền có lên men như ông cha ta đã làm, ví dụ làm tương chẳng hạn, còn các phương pháp sản xuất công nghiệp, nhất là không cho lên men thì đả phá. Tác giả cũng cho rằng không khuyến khích với trẻ em và người ăn chay vì đều thiếu một số chất dinh dưỡng cần thiết. Đây là tài liệu chính thống được phổ cập tại Mỹ cho 2 cộng đồng người Việt và người Mỹ được Nhà nước công nhận và cho phép. Theo ý tôi, có lẽ lâu nay ta ít lưu tâm tới các cách chế biến (tốt hoặc xấu) mà người giải đáp phải là các nhà khoa học, trong đó có Viện dinh dưỡng - Bộ Y tế VN chúng ta. Mong sớm có được hướng dẫn về chuyên mục này, vì sản phẩm chế từ đậu nành ở ta đang phát triển mạnh và những quảng cáo giật gân về nó cũng không thiếu trên các phương tiện truyền thông đại chúng. Xác định cách nào là đúng và có lợi cho đối tượng nào, hoặc ngược lại, âu cũng là góp phần nâng cao dân trí và cải thiện thực tế sức khỏe của nhân dân ta, vì đậu nành ở ta không hiếm, lại rẻ và dễ phổ cập.

 

 

 

 

Nguồn tài liệu được trích cho bài dưới đây

http://www.healingcrow.com/soy/soy.html

 

 

Soy: For Your Health or Their Wealth?

Soy has become synonymous with healthy eating. Who hasn't heard of the marvels of soy? Even Dr. Weil has jumped onto the soy band wagon, pushing the "health benefits" of soy during a recent appearence on Larry King Live. The USDA recently approved the use of soy in our children's school lunches. But could something that sounds so healthy actually be dangerous? Before you reach for that next bite of tofu and wash it down with some great tasting soy milk, we believe you should read about the dark side of soy.


Newest Research On Why You Should Avoid Soy

by Sally Fallon and Mary G. Enig, PhD

About the Authors:
Sally Fallon is the author of Nourishing Traditions: The Cookbook that Challenges Politically Correct Nutrition and the Diet Dictocrats (1999, 2nd edition, New Trends Publishing, tel +1 877 707 1776 or +1 219 268 2601) and President of the Weston A. Price Foundation, Washington, DC.

Each year, research on the health effects of soy and soybean components seems to increase exponentially. Furthermore, research is not just expanding in the primary areas under investigation, such as cancer, heart disease and osteoporosis; new findings suggest that soy has potential benefits that may be more extensive than previously thought.

So writes Mark Messina, PhD, General Chairperson of the Third International Soy Symposium, held in Washington, DC, in November 1999.1 For four days, well-funded scientists gathered in Washington made presentations to an admiring press and to their sponsors - United Soybean Board, American Soybean Association, Monsanto, Protein Technologies International, Central Soya, Cargill Foods, Personal Products Company, SoyLife, Whitehall-Robins Healthcare and the soybean councils of Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Nebraska, Ohio and South Dakota.

The symposium marked the apogee of a decade-long marketing campaign to gain consumer acceptance of tofu, soy milk, soy ice cream, soy cheese, soy sausage and soy derivatives, particularly soy isoflavones like genistein and diadzen, the oestrogen-like compounds found in soybeans. It coincided with a US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) decision, announced on October 25, 1999, to allow a health claim for products "low in saturated fat and cholesterol" that contain 6.25 grams of soy protein per serving. Breakfast cereals, baked goods, convenience food, smoothie mixes and meat substitutes could now be sold with labels touting benefits to cardiovascular health, as long as these products contained one heaping teaspoon of soy protein per 100-gram serving.

Marketing The Perfect Food
"Just imagine you could grow the perfect food. This food not only would provide affordable nutrition, but also would be delicious and easy to prepare in a variety of ways. It would be a healthful food, with no saturated fat. In fact, you would be growing a virtual fountain of youth on your back forty." The author is Dean Houghton, writing for The Furrow,2 a magazine published in 12 languages by John Deere. "This ideal food would help prevent, and perhaps reverse, some of the world's most dreaded diseases. You could grow this miracle crop in a variety of soils and climates. Its cultivation would build up, not deplete, the land...this miracle food already exists... It's called soy."

Just imagine. Farmers have been imagining - and planting more soy. What was once a minor crop, listed in the 1913 US Department of Agriculture (USDA) handbook not as a food but as an industrial product, now covers 72 million acres of American farmland. Much of this harvest will be used to feed chickens, turkeys, pigs, cows and salmon. Another large fraction will be squeezed to produce oil for margarine, shortenings and salad dressings.

Advances in technology make it possible to produce isolated soy protein from what was once considered a waste product - the defatted, high-protein soy chips - and then transform something that looks and smells terrible into products that can be consumed by human beings. Flavorings, preservatives, sweeteners, emulsifiers and synthetic nutrients have turned soy protein isolate, the food processors' ugly duckling, into a New Age Cinderella.

The new fairy-tale food has been marketed not so much for her beauty but for her virtues. Early on, products based on soy protein isolate were sold as extenders and meat substitutes - a strategy that failed to produce the requisite consumer demand. The industry changed its approach. "The quickest way to gain product acceptability in the less affluent society," said an industry spokesman, "is to have the product consumed on its own merit in a more affluent society."3 So soy is now sold to the upscale consumer, not as a cheap, poverty food but as a miracle substance that will prevent heart disease and cancer, whisk away hot flushes, build strong bones and keep us forever young. The competition - meat, milk, cheese, butter and eggs - has been duly demonised by the appropriate government bodies. Soy serves as meat and milk for a new generation of virtuous vegetarians.

Marketing costs money, especially when it needs to be bolstered with "research", but there's plenty of funds available. All soybean producers pay a mandatory assessment of one-half to one per cent of the net market price of soybeans. The total - something like US$80 million annually - supports United Soybean's program to "strengthen the position of soybeans in the marketplace and maintain and expand domestic and foreign markets for uses for soybeans and soybean products". State soybean councils from Maryland, Nebraska, Delaware, Arkansas, Virginia, North Dakota and Michigan provide another $2.5 million for "research".5 Private companies like Archer Daniels Midland also contribute their share. ADM spent $4.7 million for advertising on Meet the Press and $4.3 million on Face the Nation during the course of a year.6 Public relations firms help convert research projects into newspaper articles and advertising copy, and law firms lobby for favorable government regulations. IMF money funds soy processing plants in foreign countries, and free trade policies keep soybean abundance flowing to overseas destinations.

The push for more soy has been relentless and global in its reach. Soy protein is now found in most supermarket breads. It is being used to transform "the humble tortilla, Mexico's corn-based staple food, into a protein-fortified 'super-tortilla' that would give a nutritional boost to the nearly 20 million Mexicans who live in extreme poverty".7 Advertising for a new soy-enriched loaf from Allied Bakeries in Britain targets menopausal women seeking relief from hot flushes. Sales are running at a quarter of a million loaves per week.8

The soy industry hired Norman Robert Associates, a public relations firm, to "get more soy products onto school menus".9 The USDA responded with a proposal to scrap the 30 per cent limit for soy in school lunches. The NuMenu program would allow unlimited use of soy in student meals. With soy added to hamburgers, tacos and lasagna, dieticians can get the total fat content below 30 per cent of calories, thereby conforming to government dictates. "With the soy-enhanced food items, students are receiving better servings of nutrients and less cholesterol and fat."

Soy milk has posted the biggest gains, soaring from $2 million in 1980 to $300 million in the US last year.10 Recent advances in processing have transformed the gray, thin, bitter, beany-tasting Asian beverage into a product that Western consumers will accept - one that tastes like a milkshake, but without the guilt.

Processing miracles, good packaging, massive advertising and a marketing strategy that stresses the products' possible health benefits account for increasing sales to all age groups. For example, reports that soy helps prevent prostate cancer have made soy milk acceptable to middle-aged men. "You don't have to twist the arm of a 55- to 60-year-old guy to get him to try soy milk," says Mark Messina. Michael Milken, former junk bond financier, has helped the industry shed its hippie image with well-publicized efforts to consume 40 grams of soy protein daily.

America today, tomorrow the world. Soy milk sales are rising in Canada, even though soy milk there costs twice as much as cow's milk. Soybean milk processing plants are sprouting up in places like Kenya.11 Even China, where soy really is a poverty food and whose people want more meat, not tofu, has opted to build Western-style soy factories rather than develop western grasslands for grazing animals.12

Cinderella's Dark Side
The propaganda that has created the soy sales miracle is all the more remarkable because, only a few decades ago, the soybean was considered unfit to eat - even in Asia. During the Chou Dynasty (1134-246 BC) the soybean was designated one of the five sacred grains, along with barley, wheat, millet and rice. However, the pictograph for the soybean, which dates from earlier times, indicates that it was not first used as a food; for whereas the pictographs for the other four grains show the seed and stem structure of the plant, the pictograph for the soybean emphasizes the root structure. Agricultural literature of the period speaks frequently of the soybean and its use in crop rotation. Apparently the soy plant was initially used as a method of fixing nitrogen.13

The soybean did not serve as a food until the discovery of fermentation techniques, some time during the Chou Dynasty. The first soy foods were fermented products like tempeh, natto, miso and soy sauce. At a later date, possibly in the 2nd century BC, Chinese scientists discovered that a purée of cooked soybeans could be precipitated with calcium sulfate or magnesium sulfate (plaster of Paris or Epsom salts) to make a smooth, pale curd - tofu or bean curd. The use of fermented and precipitated soy products soon spread to other parts of the Orient, notably Japan and Indonesia. The Chinese did not eat unfermented soybeans as they did other legumes such as lentils because the soybean contains large quantities of natural toxins or "antinutrients". First among them are potent enzyme inhibitors that block the action of trypsin and other enzymes needed for protein digestion. These inhibitors are large, tightly folded proteins that are not completely deactivated during ordinary cooking. They can produce serious gastric distress, reduced protein digestion and chronic deficiencies in amino acid uptake. In test animals, diets high in trypsin inhibitors cause enlargement and pathological conditions of the pancreas, including cancer. 14

Soybeans also contain haemagglutinin, a clot-promoting substance that causes red blood cells to clump together.

Trypsin inhibitors and haemagglutinin are growth inhibitors. Weanling rats fed soy containing these antinutrients fail to grow normally. Growth-depressant compounds are deactivated during the process of fermentation, so once the Chinese discovered how to ferment the soybean, they began to incorporate soy foods into their diets. In precipitated products, enzyme inhibitors concentrate in the soaking liquid rather than in the curd. Thus, in tofu and bean curd, growth depressants are reduced in quantity but not completely eliminated.

Soy also contains goitrogens - substances that depress thyroid function.

Soybeans are high in phytic acid, present in the bran or hulls of all seeds. It's a substance that can block the uptake of essential minerals - calcium, magnesium, copper, iron and especially zinc - in the intestinal tract. Although not a household word, phytic acid has been extensively studied; there are literally hundreds of articles on the effects of phytic acid in the current scientific literature. Scientists are in general agreement that grain- and legume-based diets high in phytates contribute to widespread mineral deficiencies in third world countries.15 Analysis shows that calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc are present in the plant foods eaten in these areas, but the high phytate content of soy- and grain-based diets prevents their absorption.

The soybean has one of the highest phytate levels of any grain or legume that has been studied,16 and the phytates in soy are highly resistant to normal phytate-reducing techniques such as long, slow cooking.17 Only a long period of fermentation will significantly reduce the phytate content of soybeans. When precipitated soy products like tofu are consumed with meat, the mineral-blocking effects of the phytates are reduced. 18 The Japanese traditionally eat a small amount of tofu or miso as part of a mineral-rich fish broth, followed by a serving of meat or fish.

Vegetarians who consume tofu and bean curd as a substitute for meat and dairy products risk severe mineral deficiencies. The results of calcium, magnesium and iron deficiency are well known; those of zinc are less so.

Zinc is called the intelligence mineral because it is needed for optimal development and functioning of the brain and nervous system. It plays a role in protein synthesis and collagen formation; it is involved in the blood-sugar control mechanism and thus protects against diabetes; it is needed for a healthy reproductive system. Zinc is a key component in numerous vital enzymes and plays a role in the immune system. Phytates found in soy products interfere with zinc absorption more completely than with other minerals.19 Zinc deficiency can cause a "spacey" feeling that some vegetarians may mistake for the "high" of spiritual enlightenment.

Milk drinking is given as the reason why second-generation Japanese in America grow taller than their native ancestors. Some investigators postulate that the reduced phytate content of the American diet - whatever may be its other deficiencies - is the true explanation, pointing out that both Asian and Western children who do not get enough meat and fish products to counteract the effects of a high phytate diet, frequently suffer rickets, stunting and other growth problems.20


Soy Protein Isolate: Not So Friendly
Soy processors have worked hard to get these antinutrients out of the finished product, particularly soy protein isolate (SPI) which is the key ingredient in most soy foods that imitate meat and dairy products, including baby formulas and some brands of soy milk.

SPI is not something you can make in your own kitchen. Production takes place in industrial factories where a slurry of soy beans is first mixed with an alkaline solution to remove fiber, then precipitated and separated using an acid wash and, finally, neutralized in an alkaline solution. Acid washing in aluminum tanks leaches high levels of aluminum into the final product. The resultant curds are spray- dried at high temperatures to produce a high-protein powder. A final indignity to the original soybean is high-temperature, high-pressure extrusion processing of soy protein isolate to produce textured vegetable protein (TVP).

Much of the trypsin inhibitor content can be removed through high-temperature processing, but not all. Trypsin inhibitor content of soy protein isolate can vary as much as fivefold.21 (In rats, even low-level trypsin inhibitor SPI feeding results in reduced weight gain compared to controls.22) But high-temperature processing has the unfortunate side-effect of so denaturing the other proteins in soy that they are rendered largely ineffective.23 That's why animals on soy feed need lysine supplements for normal growth.

Nitrites, which are potent carcinogens, are formed during spray-drying, and a toxin called lysinoalanine is formed during alkaline processing.24 Numerous artificial flavorings, particularly MSG, are added to soy protein isolate and textured vegetable protein products to mask their strong "beany" taste and to impart the flavor of meat.25

In feeding experiments, the use of SPI increased requirements for vitamins E, K, D and B12 and created deficiency symptoms of calcium, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, copper, iron and zinc.26 Phytic acid remaining in these soy products greatly inhibits zinc and iron absorption; test animals fed SPI develop enlarged organs, particularly the pancreas and thyroid gland, and increased deposition of fatty acids in the liver. 27

Yet soy protein isolate and textured vegetable protein are used extensively in school lunch programs, commercial baked goods, diet beverages and fast food products. They are heavily promoted in third world countries and form the basis of many food giveaway programs.
In spite of poor results in animal feeding trials, the soy industry has sponsored a number of studies designed to show that soy protein products can be used in human diets as a replacement for traditional foods. An example is "Nutritional Quality of Soy Bean Protein Isolates: Studies in Children of Preschool Age", sponsored by the Ralston Purina Company.28 A group of Central American children suffering from malnutrition was first stabilized and brought into better health by feeding them native foods, including meat and dairy products. Then, for a two-week period, these traditional foods were replaced by a drink made of soy protein isolate and sugar. All nitrogen taken in and all nitrogen excreted was measured in truly Orwellian fashion: the children were weighed naked every morning, and all excrement and vomit gathered up for analysis. The researchers found that the children retained nitrogen and that their growth was "adequate", so the experiment was declared a success.

Whether the children were actually healthy on such a diet, or could remain so over a long period, is another matter. The researchers noted that the children vomited "occasionally", usually after finishing a meal; that over half suffered from periods of moderate diarrhoea; that some had upper respiratory infections; and that others suffered from rash and fever.

It should be noted that the researchers did not dare to use soy products to help the children recover from malnutrition, and were obliged to supplement the soy-sugar mixture with nutrients largely absent in soy products - notably, vitamins A, D and B12, iron, iodine and zinc.

FDA Health Claim Challenged
The best marketing strategy for a product that is inherently unhealthy is, of course, a health claim.
"The road to FDA approval," writes a soy apologist, "was long and demanding, consisting of a detailed review of human clinical data collected from more than 40 scientific studies conducted over the last 20 years. Soy protein was found to be one of the rare foods that had sufficient scientific evidence not only to qualify for an FDA health claim proposal but to ultimately pass the rigorous approval process."29

The "long and demanding" road to FDA approval actually took a few unexpected turns. The original petition, submitted by Protein Technology International, requested a health claim for isoflavones, the estrogen-like compounds found plentifully in soybeans, based on assertions that "only soy protein that has been processed in a manner in which isoflavones are retained will result in cholesterol lowering". In 1998, the FDA made the unprecedented move of rewriting PTI's petition, removing any reference to the phyto-estrogens and substituting a claim for soy protein - a move that was in direct contradiction to the agency's regulations. The FDA is authorized to make rulings only on substances presented by petition.

The abrupt change in direction was no doubt due to the fact that a number of researchers, including scientists employed by the US Government, submitted documents indicating that isoflavones are toxic.

The FDA had also received, early in 1998, the final British Government report on phytoestrogens, which failed to find much evidence of benefit and warned against potential adverse effects.30
Even with the change to soy protein isolate, FDA bureaucrats engaged in the "rigorous approval process" were forced to deal nimbly with concerns about mineral blocking effects, enzyme inhibitors, goitrogenicity, endocrine disruption, reproductive problems and increased allergic reactions from consumption of soy products.31

One of the strongest letters of protest came from Dr Dan Sheehan and Dr Daniel Doerge, government researchers at the National Center for Toxicological Research.32 Their pleas for warning labels were dismissed as unwarranted.

"Sufficient scientific evidence" of soy's cholesterol-lowering properties is drawn largely from a 1995 meta-analysis by Dr James Anderson, sponsored by Protein Technologies International and published in the New England Journal of Medicine.33

A meta-analysis is a review and summary of the results of many clinical studies on the same subject. Use of meta-analyses to draw general conclusions has come under sharp criticism by members of the scientific community. "Researchers substituting meta-analysis for more rigorous trials risk making faulty assumptions and indulging in creative accounting," says Sir John Scott, President of the Royal Society of New Zealand. "Like is not being lumped with like. Little lumps and big lumps of data are being gathered together by various groups."34

There is the added temptation for researchers, particularly researchers funded by a company like Protein Technologies International, to leave out studies that would prevent the desired conclusions. Dr Anderson discarded eight studies for various reasons, leaving a remainder of twenty-nine. The published report suggested that individuals with cholesterol levels over 250 mg/dl would experience a "significant" reduction of 7 to 20 per cent in levels of serum cholesterol if they substituted soy protein for animal protein. Cholesterol reduction was insignificant for individuals whose cholesterol was lower than 250 mg/dl.

In other words, for most of us, giving up steak and eating vegieburgers instead will not bring down blood cholesterol levels. The health claim that the FDA approved "after detailed review of human clinical data" fails to inform the consumer about these important details.

Research that ties soy to positive effects on cholesterol levels is "incredibly immature", said Ronald M. Krauss, MD, head of the Molecular Medical Research Program and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.35 He might have added that studies in which cholesterol levels were lowered through either diet or drugs have consistently resulted in a greater number of deaths in the treatment groups than in controls - deaths from stroke, cancer, intestinal disorders, accident and suicide. 36 Cholesterol-lowering measures in the US have fuelled a $60 billion per year cholesterol-lowering industry, but have not saved us from the ravages of heart disease.

Soy And Cancer
The new FDA ruling does not allow any claims about cancer prevention on food packages, but that has not restrained the industry and its marketers from making them in their promotional literature.
"In addition to protecting the heart," says a vitamin company brochure, "soy has demonstrated powerful anticancer benefits...the Japanese, who eat 30 times as much soy as North Americans, have a lower incidence of cancers of the breast, uterus and prostate."37

Indeed they do. But the Japanese, and Asians in general, have much higher rates of other types of cancer, particularly cancer of the esophagus, stomach, pancreas and liver.38 Asians throughout the world also have high rates of thyroid cancer.39 The logic that links low rates of reproductive cancers to soy consumption requires attribution of high rates of thyroid and digestive cancers to the same foods, particularly as soy causes these types of cancers in laboratory rats.

Just how much soy do Asians eat? A 1998 survey found that the average daily amount of soy protein consumed in Japan was about eight grams for men and seven for women - less than two teaspoons.40 The famous Cornell China Study, conducted by Colin T. Campbell, found that legume consumption in China varied from 0 to 58 grams per day, with a mean of about twelve.41 Assuming that two-thirds of legume consumption is soy, then the maximum consumption is about 40 grams, or less than three tablespoons per day, with an average consumption of about nine grams, or less than two teaspoons. A survey conducted in the 1930s found that soy foods accounted for only 1.5 per cent of calories in the Chinese diet, compared with 65 per cent of calories from pork. 42 (Asians traditionally cooked with lard, not vegetable oil!)

Traditionally fermented soy products make a delicious, natural seasoning that may supply important nutritional factors in the Asian diet. But except in times of famine, Asians consume soy products only in small amounts, as condiments, and not as a replacement for animal foods - with one exception. Celibate monks living in monasteries and leading a vegetarian lifestyle find soy foods quite helpful because they dampen libido.

It was a 1994 meta-analysis by Mark Messina, published in Nutrition and Cancer, that fuelled speculation on soy's anticarcinogenic properties.43 Messina noted that in 26 animal studies, 65 per cent reported protective effects from soy. He conveniently neglected to include at least one study in which soy feeding caused pancreatic cancer - the 1985 study by Rackis. 44 In the human studies he listed, the results were mixed. A few showed some protective effect, but most showed no correlation at all between soy consumption and cancer rates. He concluded that "the data in this review cannot be used as a basis for claiming that soy intake decreases cancer risk". Yet in his subsequent book, The Simple Soybean and Your Health, Messina makes just such a claim, recommending one cup or 230 grams of soy products per day in his "optimal" diet as a way to prevent cancer.

Thousands of women are now consuming soy in the belief that it protects them against breast cancer. Yet, in 1996, researchers found that women consuming soy protein isolate had an increased incidence of epithelial hyperplasia, a condition that presages malignancies.45 A year later, dietary genistein was found to stimulate breast cells to enter the cell cycle - a discovery that led the study authors to conclude that women should not consume soy products to prevent breast cancer. 46


Phytoestrogens: Panacea Or Poison?
The male species of tropical birds carries the drab plumage of the female at birth and 'colors up' at maturity, somewhere between nine and 24 months.

In 1991, Richard and Valerie James, bird breeders in Whangerai, New Zealand, purchased a new kind of feed for their birds - one based largely on soy protein.47 When soy-based feed was used, their birds 'colored up' after just a few months. In fact, one bird-food manufacturer claimed that this early development was an advantage imparted by the feed. A 1992 ad for Roudybush feed formula showed a picture of the male crimson rosella, an Australian parrot that acquires beautiful red plumage at 18 to 24 months, already brightly colored at 11 weeks old.

Unfortunately, in the ensuing years, there was decreased fertility in the birds, with precocious maturation, deformed, stunted and stillborn babies, and premature deaths, especially among females, with the result that the total population in the aviaries went into steady decline. The birds suffered beak and bone deformities, goiter, immune system disorders and pathological, aggressive behavior. Autopsy revealed digestive organs in a state of disintegration. The list of problems corresponded with many of the problems the Jameses had encountered in their two children, who had been fed soy-based infant formula.

Startled, aghast, angry, the Jameses hired toxicologist Mike Fitzpatrick. PhD, to investigate further. Dr Fitzpatrick's literature review uncovered evidence that soy consumption has been linked to numerous disorders, including infertility, increased cancer and infantile leukemia; and, in studies dating back to the 1950s,48 that genistein in soy causes endocrine disruption in animals. Dr Fitzpatrick also analyzed the bird feed and found that it contained high levels of phytoestrogens, especially genistein. When the Jameses discontinued using soy-based feed, the flock gradually returned to normal breeding habits and behavior.

The Jameses embarked on a private crusade to warn the public and government officials about toxins in soy foods, particularly the endocrine-disrupting isoflavones, genistein and diadzen. Protein Technology International received their material in 1994.

In 1991, Japanese researchers reported that consumption of as little as 30 grams or two tablespoons of soybeans per day for only one month resulted in a significant increase in thyroid-stimulating hormone.49 Diffuse goiter and hypothyroidism appeared in some of the subjects and many complained of constipation, fatigue and lethargy, even though their intake of iodine was adequate. In 1997, researchers from the FDA's National Center for Toxicological Research made the embarrassing discovery that the goitrogenic components of soy were the very same isoflavones. 50
Twenty-five grams of soy protein isolate, the minimum amount PTI claimed to have cholesterol-lowering effects, contains from 50 to 70 mg of isoflavones. It took only 45 mg of isoflavones in premenopausal women to exert significant biological effects, including a reduction in hormones needed for adequate thyroid function. These effects lingered for three months after soy consumption was discontinued.51

One hundred grams of soy protein - the maximum suggested cholesterol-lowering dose, and the amount recommended by Protein Technologies International - can contain almost 600 mg of isoflavones,52 an amount that is undeniably toxic. In 1992, the Swiss health service estimated that 100 grams of soy protein provided the estrogenic equivalent of the Pill. 53

In vitro studies suggest that isoflavones inhibit synthesis of estradiol and other steroid hormones.54 Reproductive problems, infertility, thyroid disease and liver disease due to dietary intake of isoflavones have been observed for several species of animals including mice, cheetah, quail, pigs, rats, sturgeon and sheep. 55

It is the isoflavones in soy that are said to have a favorable effect on postmenopausal symptoms, including hot flushes, and protection from osteoporosis. Quantification of discomfort from hot flushes is extremely subjective, and most studies show that control subjects report reduction in discomfort in amounts equal to subjects given soy.56 The claim that soy prevents osteoporosis is extraordinary, given that soy foods block calcium and cause vitamin D deficiencies. If Asians indeed have lower rates of osteoporosis than Westerners, it is because their diet provides plenty of vitamin D from shrimp, lard and seafood, and plenty of calcium from bone broths. The reason that Westerners have such high rates of osteoporosis is because they have substituted soy oil for butter, which is a traditional source of vitamin D and other fat-soluble activators needed for calcium absorption.

Birth Control Pills For Babies
But it was the isoflavones in infant formula that gave the Jameses the most cause for concern. In 1998, investigators reported that the daily exposure of infants to isoflavones in soy infant formula is 6 to11 times higher on a body-weight basis than the dose that has hormonal effects in adults consuming soy foods. Circulating concentrations of isoflavones in infants fed soy-based formula were 13,000 to 22,000 times higher than plasma estradiol concentrations in infants on cow's milk formula.57

Approximately 25 per cent of bottle-fed children in the US receive soy-based formula - a much higher percentage than in other parts of the Western world. Fitzpatrick estimated that an infant exclusively fed soy formula receives the estrogenic equivalent (based on body weight) of at least five birth control pills per day.58 By contrast, almost no phytoestrogens have been detected in dairy-based infant formula or in human milk, even when the mother consumes soy products.

Scientists have known for years that soy-based formula can cause thyroid problems in babies. But what are the effects of soy products on the hormonal development of the infant, both male and female?

Male infants undergo a "testosterone surge" during the first few months of life, when testosterone levels may be as high as those of an adult male. During this period, the infant is programmed to express male characteristics after puberty, not only in the development of his sexual organs and other masculine physical traits, but also in setting patterns in the brain characteristic of male behavior. In monkeys, deficiency of male hormones impairs the development of spatial perception (which, in humans, is normally more acute in men than in women), of learning ability and of visual discrimination tasks (such as would be required for reading). 59 It goes without saying that future patterns of sexual orientation may also be influenced by the early hormonal environment. Male children exposed during gestation to diethylstilbestrol (DES), a synthetic estrogen that has effects on animals similar to those of phytoestrogens from soy, had testes smaller than normal on manturation. 60

Learning disabilities, especially in male children, have reached epidemic proportions. Soy infant feeding - which began in earnest in the early 1970s - cannot be ignored as a probable cause for these tragic developments.

As for girls, an alarming number are entering puberty much earlier than normal, according to a recent study reported in the journal Pediatrics.61 Investigators found that one per cent of all girls now show signs of puberty, such as breast development or pubic hair, before the age of three; by age eight, 14.7 per cent of white girls and almost 50 per cent of African-American girls have one or both of these characteristics.

New data indicate that environmental estrogens such as PCBs and DDE (a breakdown product of DDT) may cause early sexual development in girls.62 In the 1986 Puerto Rico Premature Thelarche study, the most significant dietary association with premature sexual development was not chicken - as reported in the press - but soy infant formula.63

The consequences of this truncated childhood are tragic. Young girls with mature bodies must cope with feelings and urges that most children are not well-equipped to handle. And early maturation in girls is frequently a harbinger for problems with the reproductive system later in life, including failure to menstruate, infertility and breast cancer.

Parents who have contacted the Jameses recount other problems associated with children of both sexes who were fed soy-based formula, including extreme emotional behavior, asthma, immune system problems, pituitary insufficiency, thyroid disorders and irritable bowel syndrome - the same endocrine and digestive havoc that afflicted the Jameses' parrots.

Dissension In The Ranks
Organizers of the Third International Soy Symposium would be hard-pressed to call the conference an unqualified success. On the second day of the symposium, the London-based Food Commission and the Weston A. Price Foundation of Washington, DC, held a joint press conference, in the same hotel as the symposium, to present concerns about soy infant formula. Industry representatives sat stony-faced through the recitation of potential dangers and a plea from concerned scientists and parents to pull soy-based infant formula from the market. Under pressure from the Jameses, the New Zealand Government had issued a health warning about soy infant formula in 1998; it was time for the American government to do the same.

On the last day of the symposium, presentations on new findings related to toxicity sent a well-oxygenated chill through the giddy helium hype. Dr Lon White reported on a study of Japanese Americans living in Hawaii, that showed a significant statistical relationship between two or more servings of tofu a week and "accelerated brain aging".64 Those participants who consumed tofu in mid-life had lower cognitive function in late life and a greater incidence of Alzheimer's disease and dementia. "What's more," said Dr White, "those who ate a lot of tofu, by the time they were 75 or 80 looked five years older". 65 White and his colleagues blamed the negative effects on isoflavones - a finding that supports an earlier study in which postmenopausal women with higher levels of circulating estrogen experienced greater cognitive decline. 66

Scientists Daniel Sheehan and Daniel Doerge, from the National Center for Toxicological Research, ruined PTI's day by presenting findings from rat feeding studies, indicating that genistein in soy foods causes irreversible damage to enzymes that synthesise thyroid hormones.67 "The association between soybean consumption and goiter in animals and humans has a long history," wrote Dr Doerge. "Current evidence for the beneficial effects of soy requires a full understanding of potential adverse effects as well."

Dr Claude Hughes reported that rats born to mothers that were fed genistein had decreased birth weights compared to controls, and onset of puberty occurred earlier in male offspring.68 His research suggested that the effects observed in rats "...will be at least somewhat predictive of what occurs in humans. There is no reason to assume that there will be gross malformations of fetuses but there may be subtle changes, such as neurobehavioral attributes, immune function and sex hormone levels." The results, he said, "could be nothing or could be something of great concern...if mom is eating something that can act like sex hormones, it is logical to wonder if that could change the baby's development". 69

A study of babies born to vegetarian mothers, published in January 2000, indicated just what those changes in baby's development might be. Mothers who ate a vegetarian diet during pregnancy had a fivefold greater risk of delivering a boy with hypospadias, a birth defect of the penis. 70 The authors of the study suggested that the cause was greater exposure to phytoestrogens in soy foods popular with vegetarians. Problems with female offspring of vegetarian mothers are more likely to show up later in life. While soy's estrogenic effect is less than that of diethylstilbestrol (DES), the dose is likely to be higher because it's consumed as a food, not taken as a drug. Daughters of women who took DES during pregnancy suffered from infertility and cancer when they reached their twenties.

Question Marks Over Gras Status
Lurking in the background of industry hype for soy is the nagging question of whether it's even legal to add soy protein isolate to food. All food additives not in common use prior to 1958, including casein protein from milk, must have GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) status. In 1972, the Nixon administration directed a re-examination of substances believed to be GRAS, in the light of any scientific information then available. This re-examination included casein protein that became codified as GRAS in 1978. In 1974, the FDA obtained a literature review of soy protein because, as soy protein had not been used in food until 1959 and was not even in common use in the early 1970s, it was not eligible to have its GRAS status grandfathered under the provisions of the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act.71

The scientific literature up to 1974 recognized many antinutrients in factory-made soy protein, including trypsin inhibitors, phytic acid and genistein. But the FDA literature review dismissed discussion of adverse impacts, with the statement that it was important for "adequate processing" to remove them. Genistein could be removed with an alcohol wash, but it was an expensive procedure that processors avoided. Later studies determined that trypsin inhibitor content could be removed only with long periods of heat and pressure, but the FDA has imposed no requirements for manufacturers to do so.

The FDA was more concerned with toxins formed during processing, specifically nitrites and lysinoalanine.72 Even at low levels of consumption - averaging one-third of a gram per day at the time - the presence of these carcinogens was considered too great a threat to public health to allow GRAS status.

Soy protein did have approval for use as a binder in cardboard boxes, and this approval was allowed to continue, as researchers considered that migration of nitrites from the box into the food contents would be too small to constitute a cancer risk. FDA officials called for safety specifications and monitoring procedures before granting of GRAS status for food. These were never performed. To this day, use of soy protein is codified as GRAS only for this limited industrial use as a cardboard binder. This means that soy protein must be subject to premarket approval procedures each time manufacturers intend to use it as a food or add it to a food.

Soy protein was introduced into infant formula in the early 1960s. It was a new product with no history of any use at all. As soy protein did not have GRAS status, premarket approval was required. This was not and still has not been granted. The key ingredient of soy infant formula is not recognized as safe.

The Next Asbestos?
"Against the backdrop of widespread praise...there is growing suspicion that soy - despite its undisputed benefits - may pose some health hazards," writes Marian Burros, a leading food writer for the New York Times. More than any other writer, Ms Burros's endorsement of a low-fat, largely vegetarian diet has herded Americans into supermarket aisles featuring soy foods. Yet her January 26, 2000 article, "Doubts Cloud Rosy News on Soy", contains the following alarming statement: "Not one of the 18 scientists interviewed for this column was willing to say that taking isoflavones was risk free." Ms Burros did not enumerate the risks, nor did she mention that the recommended 25 daily grams of soy protein contain enough isoflavones to cause problems in sensitive individuals, but it was evident that the industry had recognized the need to cover itself.

Because the industry is extremely exposed...contingency lawyers will soon discover that the number of potential plaintiffs can be counted in the millions and the pockets are very, very deep. Juries will hear something like the following: "The industry has known for years that soy contains many toxins. At first they told the public that the toxins were removed by processing. When it became apparent that processing could not get rid of them, they claimed that these substances were beneficial. Your government granted a health claim to a substance that is poisonous, and the industry lied to the public to sell more soy."

The "industry" includes merchants, manufacturers, scientists, publicists, bureaucrats, former bond financiers, food writers, vitamin companies and retail stores. Farmers will probably escape because they were duped like the rest of us. But they need to find something else to grow before the soy bubble bursts and the market collapses: grass-fed livestock, designer vegetables...or hemp to make paper for thousands and thousands of legal briefs.


Extracted from Nexus Magazine, Volume 7, Number 3 (April-May 2000)

ENDNOTES:

1. Program for the Third International Symposium on the Role of Soy in Preventing and Treating Chronic Disease, Sunday, October 31, through Wednesday, November 3, 1999, Omni Shoreham Hotel, Washington, DC.
2. Houghton, Dean, "Healthful Harvest", The Furrow, January 2000, pp. 10-13.
3. Coleman, Richard J., "Vegetable Protein - A Delayed Birth?" Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society 52:238A, April 1975.
4. See www/unitedsoybean.org.
5. These are listed in www.soyonlineservice.co.nz.
6. Wall Street Journal, October 27, 1995.
7. Smith, James F., "Healthier tortillas could lead to healthier Mexico", Denver Post, August 22, 1999, p. 26A.
8. "Bakery says new loaf can help reduce hot flushes", Reuters, September 15, 1997.
9. "Beefing Up Burgers with Soy Products at School", Nutrition Week, Community Nutrition Institute, Washington, DC, June 5, 1998, p. 2.
10. Urquhart, John, "A Health Food Hits Big Time", Wall Street Journal, August 3, 1999, p. B1
11. "Soyabean Milk Plant in Kenya", Africa News Service, September 1998.
12. Simoons, Frederick J., Food in China: A Cultural and Historical Inquiry, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1991, p. 64.
13. Katz, Solomon H., "Food and Biocultural Evolution: A Model for the Investigation of Modern Nutritional Problems", Nutritional Anthropology, Alan R. Liss Inc., 1987, p. 50.
14. Rackis, Joseph J. et al., "The USDA trypsin inhibitor study. I. Background, objectives and procedural details", Qualification of Plant Foods in Human Nutrition, vol. 35, 1985.
15. Van Rensburg et al., "Nutritional status of African populations predisposed to esophageal cancer", Nutrition and Cancer, vol. 4, 1983, pp. 206-216; Moser, P.B. et al., "Copper, iron, zinc and selenium dietary intake and status of Nepalese lactating women and their breastfed infants", American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 47:729-734, April 1988; Harland, B.F. et al., "Nutritional status and phytate: zinc and phytate X calcium: zinc dietary molar ratios of lacto-ovovegetarian Trappist monks: 10 years later", Journal of the American Dietetic Association 88:1562-1566, December 1988.
16. El Tiney, A.H., "Proximate Composition and Mineral and Phytate Contents of Legumes Grown in Sudan", Journal of Food Composition and Analysis (1989) 2:6778.
17. Ologhobo, A.D. et al., "Distribution of phosphorus and phytate in some Nigerian varieties of legumes and some effects of processing", Journal of Food Science 49(1):199-201, January/February 1984.
18. Sandstrom, B. et al., "Effect of protein level and protein source on zinc absorption in humans", Journal of Nutrition 119(1):48-53, January 1989; Tait, Susan et al., "The availability of minerals in food, with particular reference to iron", Journal of Research in Society and Health 103(2):74-77, April 1983.
19. Phytate reduction of zinc absorption has been demonstrated in numerous studies. These results are summarised in Leviton, Richard, Tofu, Tempeh, Miso and Other Soyfoods: The 'Food of the Future' - How to Enjoy Its Spectacular Health Benefits, Keats Publishing, Inc., New Canaan, CT, USA, 1982, p. 1415.
20. Mellanby, Edward, "Experimental rickets: The effect of cereals and their interaction with other factors of diet and environment in producing rickets", Journal of the Medical Research Council 93:265, March 1925; Wills, M.R. et al., "Phytic Acid and Nutritional Rickets in Immigrants", The Lancet, April 8,1972, pp. 771-773.
21. Rackis et al., ibid.
22. Rackis et al., ibid., p. 232.
23. Wallace, G.M., "Studies on the Processing and Properties of Soymilk", Journal of Science and Food Agriculture 22:526-535, October 1971.
24. Rackis, et al., ibid., p. 22; "Evaluation of the Health Aspects of Soy Protein Isolates as Food Ingredients", prepared for FDA by Life Sciences Research Office, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20014), USA, Contract No. FDA 223-75-2004, 1979.
25. See www/truthinlabeling.org.
26. Rackis, Joseph, J., "Biological and Physiological Factors in Soybeans", Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society 51:161A-170A, January 1974.
27. Rackis, Joseph J. et al., "The USDA trypsin inhibitor study", ibid.
28. Torum, Benjamin, "Nutritional Quality of Soybean Protein Isolates: Studies in Children of Preschool Age", in Soy Protein and Human Nutrition, Harold L Wilcke et al. (eds), Academic Press, New York, 1979.
29. Zreik, Marwin, CCN, "The Great Soy Protein Awakening", Total Health 32(1), February 2000.
30. IEH Assessment on Phytoestrogens in the Human Diet, Final Report to the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, UK, November 1997, p. 11.
31. Food Labeling: Health Claims: Soy Protein and Coronary Heart Disease, Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR, Part 101 (Docket No. 98P-0683).
32. Sheegan, Daniel M. and Daniel R Doerge, Letter to Dockets Management Branch (HFA-305), February 18, 1999.
33. Anderson, James W. et al., "Meta-analysis of the Effects of Soy Protein Intake on Serum Lipids", New England Journal of Medicine (1995) 333:(5):276-282.
34. Guy, Camille, "Doctors warned against magic, quackery", New Zealand Herald, September 9, 1995, section 8, p. 5.
35. Sander, Kate and Hilary Wilson, "FDA approves new health claim for soy, but litte fallout expected for dairy", Cheese Market News, October 22, 1999, p. 24.
36. Enig, Mary G. and Sally Fallon, "The Oiling of America", NEXUS Magazine, December 1998-January 1999 and February-March 1999; also available at www.WestonAPrice.org.
37. Natural Medicine News (L & H Vitamins, 32-33 47th Avenue, Long Island City, NY 11101), USA, January/February 2000, p. 8.
38. Harras, Angela (ed.), Cancer Rates and Risks, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, 1996, 4th edition.
39. Searle, Charles E. (ed.), Chemical Carcinogens, ACS Monograph 173, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 1976.
40. Nagata, C. et al., Journal of Nutrition (1998) 128:209-213.
41. Campbell, Colin T. et al., The Cornell Project in China.
42. Chang, K.C. (ed.), Food in Chinese Culture: Anthropological and Historical Perspectives, New Haven, 1977.
43. Messina, Mark J. et al., "Soy Intake and Cancer Risk: A Review of the In Vitro and In Vivo Data", Nutrition and Cancer (1994) 21(2):113-131.
44. Rackis et al, "The USDA trypsin inhibitor study", ibid.
45. Petrakis, N.L. et al., "Stimulatory influence of soy protein isolate on breast secretion in pre- and post-menopausal women", Cancer Epid. Bio. Prev. (1996) 5:785-794.
46. Dees, C. et al., "Dietary estrogens stimulate human breast cells to enter the cell cycle", Environmental Health Perspectives (1997) 105(Suppl. 3):633-636.
47. Woodhams, D.J., "Phytoestrogens and parrots: The anatomy of an investigation", Proceedings of the Nutrition Society of New Zealand (1995) 20:22-30.
48. Matrone, G. et al., "Effect of Genistin on Growth and Development of the Male Mouse", Journal of Nutrition (1956) 235-240.
49. Ishizuki, Y. et al., "The effects on the thyroid gland of soybeans administered experimentally in healthy subjects", Nippon Naibunpi Gakkai Zasshi (1991) 767:622-629.
50. Divi, R.L. et al., "Anti-thyroid isoflavones from the soybean", Biochemical Pharmacology (1997) 54:1087-1096.
51. Cassidy, A. et al., "Biological Effects of a Diet of Soy Protein Rich in Isoflavones on the Menstrual Cycle of Premenopausal Women", American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (1994) 60:333-340.
52. Murphy, P.A., "Phytoestrogen Content of Processed Soybean Foods", Food Technology, January 1982, pp. 60-64.
53. Bulletin de L'Office Fédéral de la Santé Publique, no. 28, July 20, 1992.
54. Keung, W.M., "Dietary oestrogenic isoflavones are potent inhibitors of B-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase of P. testosteronii", Biochemical and Biophysical Research Committee (1995) 215:1137-1144; Makela, S.I. et al., "Estrogen-specific 12 B-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase type 1 (E.C. 1.1.1.62) as a possible target for the action of phytoestrogens", PSEBM (1995) 208:51-59.
55. Setchell, K.D.R. et al., "Dietary oestrogens - a probable cause of infertility and liver disease in captive cheetahs", Gastroenterology (1987) 93:225-233; Leopald, A.S., "Phytoestrogens: Adverse effects on reproduction in California Quail," Science (1976) 191:98-100; Drane, H.M. et al., "Oestrogenic activity of soya-bean products", Food, Cosmetics and Technology (1980) 18:425-427; Kimura, S. et al., "Development of malignant goiter by defatted soybean with iodine-free diet in rats", Gann. (1976) 67:763-765; Pelissero, C. et al., "Oestrogenic effect of dietary soybean meal on vitellogenesis in cultured Siberian Sturgeon Acipenser baeri", Gen. Comp. End. (1991) 83:447-457; Braden et al., "The oestrogenic activity and metabolism of certain isoflavones in sheep", Australian J. Agricultural Research (1967) 18:335-348.
56. Ginsburg, Jean and Giordana M. Prelevic, "Is there a proven place for phytoestrogens in the menopause?", Climacteric (1999) 2:75-78.
57. Setchell, K.D. et al., "Isoflavone content of infant formulas and the metabolic fate of these early phytoestrogens in early life", American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, December 1998 Supplement, 1453S-1461S.
58. Irvine, C. et al., "The Potential Adverse Effects of Soybean Phytoestrogens in Infant Feeding", New Zealand Medical Journal May 24, 1995, p. 318.
59. Hagger, C. and J. Bachevalier, "Visual habit formation in 3-month-old monkeys (Macaca mulatta): reversal of sex difference following neonatal manipulations of androgen", Behavior and Brain Research (1991) 45:57-63.
60. Ross, R.K. et al., "Effect of in-utero exposure to diethylstilbestrol on age at onset of puberty and on post-pubertal hormone levels in boys", Canadian Medical Association Journal 128(10):1197-8, May 15, 1983.
61. Herman-Giddens, Marcia E. et al., "Secondary Sexual Characteristics and Menses in Young Girls Seen in Office Practice: A Study from the Pediatric Research in Office Settings Network", Pediatrics 99(4):505-512, April 1997.
62. Rachel's Environment & Health Weekly 263, "The Wingspread Statement", Part 1, December 11, 1991; Colborn, Theo, Dianne Dumanoski and John Peterson Myers, Our Stolen Future, Little, Brown & Company, London, 1996.
63. Freni-Titulaer, L.W., "Premature Thelarch in Puerto Rico: A search for environmental factors", American Journal of Diseases of Children 140(12):1263-1267, December 1986.
64. White, Lon, "Association of High Midlife Tofu Consumption with Accelerated Brain Aging", Plenary Session #8: Cognitive Function, The Third International Soy Symposium, November 1999, Program, p. 26.
65. Altonn, Helen, "Too much tofu induces 'brain aging', study shows", Honolulu Star-Bulletin, November 19, 1999.
66. Journal of the American Geriatric Society (1998) 46:816-21.
67. Doerge, Daniel R., "Inactivation of Thyroid Peroxidase by Genistein and Daidzein in Vitro and in Vivo; Mechanism for Anti-Thyroid Activity of Soy", presented at the November 1999 Soy Symposium in Washington, DC, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72029, USA.
68. Hughes, Claude, Center for Women's Health and Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA.
69. Soy Intake May Affect Fetus", Reuters News Service, November 5, 1999.
70. "Vegetarian diet in pregnancy linked to birth defect", BJU International 85:107-113, January 2000.
71. FDA ref 72/104, Report FDABF GRAS - 258.
72. "Evaluation of the Health Aspects of Soy Protein Isolates as Food Ingredients", prepared for FDA by Life Sciences Research Office, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) (9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20014, USA), Contract No, FDA 223-75-2004, 1979.

 

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Health

Being Vegan and Eating Soy: Myths, Truths, and Everything in Between
by Christa Novelli, M.P.H.

Soy foods have received a great deal of attention in the media in recent years. Very little that the public hears about soy is neutral. Depending upon whom you choose to believe, soy is either a wonder food or the next asbestos. Even among professionals in the field of nutrition and other sciences, there is much confusion about the conflicting information drawn from the countless research articles published each year on soybeans and their derivatives. While it is unlikely that I will address all concerns or cover every study ever conducted on the health effects of soy consumption, I hope to give a clearer picture of what the research regarding soy and human health tells us.

Article continues below



First, we need to have a basic understanding of what is included in the term “soy foods.” Soy foods encompass a wide variety of items including edamame (whole soybeans), soy flour, soymilk, tofu, soy protein isolates, texturized vegetable protein (TVP), soy oil, and fermented soy products such as tempeh and miso. Adding to this list are all of those processed items that are made from these soy products including soy “meats,” soy cheeses, soy “ice creams,” among many other items. One may be surprised to find out how many foods contain some form of soy (soy flour and soy lethicin are often found in cereals, cake mixes, granola bars, and a whole host of other items). Obviously, vegetarians and vegans are not the only Westerners who eat soy products as a regular part of their diet.

As is often the case when a food or medicine is presented as the new “wonder drug,” soy has experienced a backlash in recent years. A few organizations, most notably the Weston A. Price Foundation (WAPF) and the innocuous sounding Soy Online Service (SOS) in New Zealand, have seized upon any negative studies involving soy products (usually the primary isoflavone found in soy, genestein) and are seeking to have soy foods and formula removed from the public marketplace on the grounds that they cause a myriad of problems ranging from cancers to brain atrophy to immune and endocrine system disorders. As one researcher very accurately noted in his response to an editorial appearing in the professional journal, Leukemia, which has been oft cited as “proof” of soy’s deleterious effects, medical journals are no longer a safe forum for scientists and doctors to discuss and debate new hypotheses with one another. These publications, and in particular the abstracts published in these journals, are increasing being accessed by the public especially in the age of the Internet.

For those of you unfamiliar with scientific writing, an “abstract” is a brief summary of a study’s research question, methods and conclusion(s). Abstracts for many scientific articles can be accessed by the public, free of charge, online at the National Library of Medicine’s website,
PubMed and also on Med Line. While I used to be a proponent of “doing your own research,” by searching for information on these websites, the more I have seen about how these abstracts are being used and interpreted the less inclined I am to advise the lay public to draw conclusions from abstracts that can be found on the internet. It is very questionable science to start with your conclusion in mind and then search for any and all studies to support said conclusion. Unfortunately, that is exactly what many of the soy detractors appear to have done, aided by abstracts found online.

A good analogy-- if I started with the conclusion that eating oranges and broccoli was going to cause cancer, I could actually find a number of articles that showed that a component of these foods (vitamin C) has been shown in some trials done on animals and cell cultures to proliferate tumors. I could then publish articles warning of the dangers of oranges and broccoli and cite these studies as “proof.” Of course, I would be going against the much greater body of evidence that shows the exact opposite effect.

Another problem that I have found in looking at the research cited by the detractors of soy is that one can come to a conclusion that is at complete odds with the research you are citing by reading just the abstract of an article. For instance, the WAPF has a link on their website that purports to show the dangers of soy by citing a large number of research studies with direct quotes drawn from the abstracts of these published articles. One example includes a study of soy formula published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition in 1998 [1]. On the WAPF site, pieces of the abstract are quoted stating that the researchers found significantly elevated plasma isoflavone levels (plant estrogens found in the blood stream) of infants fed soy-based formula and that this may exert long-term health effects for these infants. What one would find, if he bothered to read the entire article, was that the researchers found health benefits (i.e. – “effects”) for children with increased levels of isoflavones in their blood stream – the exact opposite of what WAPF is attempting to assert.

Similarly, this same site, as well as a number of others such as theomnivore.com and bullz-eye.com, mentions numerous articles that found that soy consumption by males reduces serum (blood) testosterone levels [2] [3] [4]. These studies are cited in online articles with titles like: Soy lives up to its reputation as the breakfast of weenies. WAPF quotes one of the abstracts [3] as testifying that “replacement of meat protein with soyabean protein, as tofu, may have a minor effect on biologically-active sex hormones which could influence prostate cancer risk.” [Emphasis mine] What the term “influence” in the study findings actually meant was reduce, not increase risk. In addressing a similar study [4], WAPF casts doubt on the authors of the study when it questions why they focused on their findings that consuming soy reduced the risk of prostate disease and arteriosclerosis, but failed to note that “testosterone levels fell in the volunteers eating soy but researchers did not stress this alarming finding in their conclusion.” There was no reason for the authors to consider a reduction in testosterone an “alarming finding.” In fact, the reduction in testosterone levels was likely the reason for the reduction in disease risk much the same as reduced estrogen in the blood stream of women reduces breast cancer risk.

So, what does the research show? I will attempt to answer that question by addressing the various health problems that soy has been alleged to prevent and, conversely, cause or exacerbate. Some of the major diseases and health problems that soy has been associated with (in a positive or negative manner) include breast cancer, other cancers, neurodegenerative diseases and dementia (“brain atrophy”), thyroid disorders, infertility, and disorders or problems specific to males (often referred to as “demasculinization”). Then there is the whole separate issue of soy formula, which I will address on its own.

Cancer
Allegation:
The argument has been put forth that the phytoestrogens (plant estrogens) contained in soy promote the growth of cancers.

Reality:
While a few studies have found that animals who are implanted with cancer cells and then fed soy protein isolates show increased growth of the cancer cells, the majority of the research shows soy to have an inhibitory effect on cancer growth. A recent meta-analysis of the literature relating to soy and cancers of the breast, colon, and prostate, found that individuals who consumed soy had a reduced risk of developing all three of these types of cancers [5].

When results are not in favor of their conclusion, the opponents of soy often call into question the research method used. Meta-analyses have been questioned as a less than valid research method. SOS has stated in their Marketplace Newsletter that meta-analyses are, “a method upon which many in the scientific community frown.”

This same newsletter also claims that meta-analyses that show benefits to consuming soy are flawed because, “there is also the added temptation for researchers, particularly those funded by industry, to omit studies that prevent desired conclusions.” Omission of studies that find the opposite of what one has already concluded is certainly a significant flaw and the conclusions drawn by meta-analyses are appreciably dependent upon proper use of the research tool. A meta-analysis involves conducting a systematic review of the research on a particular topic. If one uses a narrative approach rather than a systematic approach, that is picks and chooses which studies to include based upon personal bias, there is plenty of room for inaccurate conclusions. The key words here being systematic (an organized, unbiased synthesis of the data) versus narrative (an account based upon personal selection).

In fact, properly conducted meta-analyses are one of the more powerful statistical tools for assessing the effect of health interventions and are not “frowned upon” by any scientific community with which I am familiar. The meta-analysis, to which I referred, above, was systematically conducted and showed no apparent bias.

With that aside in mind, women may want to exercise some caution if they have a history of estrogen dependent breast-cancer. While there is no definite proof that consumption of phytoestrogens increases the risk of a reoccurrence, and some studies even show a reduction in risk of reoccurrence, the jury is still out in this area. There is some indication that consumption of soy isoflavones may interact with the anti-breast cancer drug, tamoxifen, reducing its efficacy [6]. While this effect is not certain, it would be wise to discuss your consumption of soy products with your doctor if you have a history of breast cancer.

The most logical course to take if one is concerned about the possible negative effects of plant estrogens contained in soy is to avoid consuming highly processed forms of soy, or reduce consumption of those products. It has been suggested by a few scientists that the degree of processing effects how soy phytoestrogens will react with the human body, with the more highly processed soy products (especially soy protein isolates) exerting a more estrogenic effect in the body. Just to put this in perspective, some of the same researchers who have found estrogenic effects on animals when feeding them high concentrations of soy protein isolates, have also found similar estrogenic effects for isolates of other plants – namely cabbage and brussel sprouts [7]. No one is suggesting that we all stop eating cabbage because it obviously offers significantly more benefits than it does risks. We just generally do not eat extracts of freeze-dried cruciferous vegetables. The same should hold true for soy and any other food – the closer to its whole form as possible is probably the best choice.

Brain Health
Allegation:
Soy causes Alzheimer’s disease, dementia, and reduced brain functioning.

Reality:
The great majority of the research relating to soy consumption and brain health shows soy to have a protective effect on the brain, not a damaging effect on the brain. One article that has frequently been cited as “proof” that soy damages the brain found some possible benefits and some possible harm for male rats fed a diet high in phytoestrogens [8]. The researchers who conducted this study have also conducted a number of other studies wherein the conclusions were that soy phytoestrogens are protective to the brain.

Edwin Lephart, the lead researcher on the above noted study, has this to say in response to his article being cited as proof of soy causing neurodegeneration of the brain: “In general, phytoestrogens, and more specifically isoflavones, appear to be neuroprotective. Meaning these molecules protect the brain cells and brain function. The research that you state via the Price foundation citing our article is but one study. There are many studies and many molecules that isoflavones influence in the brain and when one examines the overall effect of isoflavones the current evaluation, in my opinion, is that phytoestrogens derived from soy are neuroprotective. [9]”

Thyroid Health
Allegation:
Soy consumption reduces thyroid function and/or causes thyroid cancer.

Reality:
Some older studies of infants fed soy-based formula not fortified with iodine showed reduced thyroid functioning in those infants. Further research has shown that, in the absence of an iodine deficiency, soy does not reduce thyroid function [10]. In relation to infants with congenital hypothyroidism, there is not yet complete consensus amongst the scientific community as to whether soy formula complicates this pre-existing condition. If you have an infant with congenital hypothyroidism, again, soliciting the advice of your doctor or health care provider would be a wise decision.

As far as thyroid cancer is concerned, large population-based studies show that soy not only does not increase the risk of thyroid cancer, it exerts a protective effect [11].

Infertility and reproductive health
Allegation:
Soy causes infertility, hormonal imbalances, hypospadias, and desmasculinization of males.

Reality:
A few studies of the offspring of rodents who were fed soy isolates during pregnancy and lactation and rodents who were injected with soy isoflavones in infancy have found evidence of negative reproductive outcomes. However, there is a significant difference in the amount of estrogen to which fetal rats and fetal humans are normally exposed. Fetal rats are normally exposed to very small quantities of estrogen in utero whereas human fetuses are normally exposed to large quantities of estrogen in utero – this is without any soy consumption on the mother’s part. It has been suggested that rats, unlike humans, are not meant to be exposed to significant quantities of estrogen in utero and their reproductive organs are, therefore, more biologically sensitive to the effects of isoflavones. [12]

Whatever the mechanism for the poor outcomes for the rodents, these results have not been replicated in humans. In fact, research on human infants exposed to soy in utero and during infancy has found no statistically significant differences in sexual development or reproductive health other than one study that found slightly longer menstrual periods in women who were fed soy formula as infants [12]. Clinical studies of infants fed soy formula, arguably the infants with the highest exposure to soy, have found no hormonal defects, no increase in infertility and normal sexual maturation. [13] [14] [15] [16]

The one human study that implicated a vegetarian diet during pregnancy as a cause of hypospadias [17] (a congenital defect of the male genitalia in which the opening is not at the tip of the penis) should not be entirely dismissed, but is certainly not conclusive either. The researchers followed a large cohort of pregnant women in Britain and looked at many factors that could influence the development of hypospadias, including maternal diet. They then followed up to determine which factors were associated with a greater instance of hypospadias. Among those factors considered, the only ones that increased the risk of having a male child born with this defect were iron supplementation during pregnancy, being vegetarian during the pregnancy, and/or influenza during the first trimester.

Without looking any further, these findings may be alarming. However, we need to consider what aspect of their environment may have increased the instance of hypospadias among the boys born to the vegetarian mothers – soy is certainly not the only possibility and perhaps not even the most logical suspect once the remainder of the findings are considered. The researchers do hypothesize in the abstract of their article that “vegetarians have greater exposure to phytoestrogens than do omnivores, these results support the possibility that phytoestrogens have a deleterious effect on the developing male reproductive system. [18]”

We must understand that a hypothesis is only a tentative explanation and not a tested theory. Yes, it is possible that phytoestrogens played a role, but it is also possible that the pesticides on the larger quantities of produce eaten by the vegetarian women played a role, another hypothesis that the researchers offer in this paper. (Very few of the women in the study ate organic produce. Of those who did, none had a son born with hypospadias, but the numbers of women who fell into this category – consuming only organic produce – was so small that it was not possible to calculate if the protective effect of organic produce was statistically significant.)

Again, if we bothered to read the entire article, we would find the statement that, “the association of hypospadias with a vegetarian diet was not obviously explicable by the components of a vegetarian diet. There were differences in the proportion of hypospadias cases born to mothers consuming soya milk or other products, but they were not significant, possibly because there were too few mothers who reported consuming such foods. [19]” [Emphasis mine] Thus, there was an association with being vegetarian during pregnancy and increased risk in having a son born with hypospadias, but there was not an increase in risk related to consuming the two soy products that the dietary questionnaire accounted for: soy milk and soy “meats.”

Without a more thorough analysis of the dietary habits of pregnant women, it is impossible to determine if soy was the cause of the increased incidence of hypospadias among the vegetarian women included in this study or if there was some other dietary or other environmental cause. Further research is warranted, but until these findings are replicated with a more careful dietary analysis, we really do not know what caused the increase in hypospadias in the infants in the study.

Soy Formula
Then we have the issue of soy formula. The feeding of soy-based formula to infants is highly contentious. All doctors, scientists and health professionals with whom I spoke (myself included) would recommend breast feeding over any kind of formula when at all possible. With that aside, it is hard to determine the true effects of soy formula on human infants because so few studies have been done on human infants. The Arkansas Children’s Nutrition Center based at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) has a research team who is in the process of conducting the largest and most complete study to date of infants fed soy formula, cow’s milk formula and human breast milk. The lead researcher for this study, Tom Badger, was kind enough to answer some questions for me via email and to speak with me on the phone.

Dr. Badger stated that the number of children fed soy formula in the U.S. is larger than in any other nation (25% of the four million infants born in the U.S. each year are fed soy-based formula). This sets the U.S. up as the perfect location for testing the long-term effects of this feeding choice. Dr. Badger estimates that 1 million infants are fed soy formula each year in the U.S. and “thus, we have a lot of experience with this food source for infants… These children grow and develop normally and have disease and disorder rates equal to those of infants fed milk-based formula. All of our research thus far suggests that there are health benefits rather than adverse effects of consuming soy formula. Therefore, any adverse effects would need to be very subtle or occur much later in life, say after age 40-45 years. [20]”

The Arkansas study currently has hundreds of children enrolled with more children being enrolled every week. The oldest children in the study are three years old at this point and have been followed since four weeks of age. The children in the study are seen every month for the first year of life with each visit lasting between two to six hours. The study participants are seen yearly thereafter until age six, with the hopes that funding will be extended to allow the children to be followed through puberty. Thus far, all evidence from this study (which includes body composition, brain growth and function, endocrinology, and metabolism) shows no difference in the children fed soy-based formula versus cow’s milk-based formula.

Dr. Badger’s team did an in-depth review of prior studies that showed adverse effects on young animals who were injected with or fed soy derivatives. They spoke with the researchers of those studies and concluded that there were major flaws in the studies and/or there were other factors that made the studies inapplicable to human infants. Dr. Badger did note that animal studies are not always flawed by virtue of the fact that they were done on non-human animals and the flaws found varied depending on the studies.

Animal Studies
In general, the concern with the animals studies that relate to isoflavones fall into a few areas. One concern is that many of the studies that found increases in cancer dealt with immunocompromised animals and/or female animals whose ovaries and uteruses had been removed. An average adult or child has not had a complete ovo-hysterectomy nor is s/he immunocompromised. It is not possible to generalize to a whole population based upon a small component of that population with different circumstances.

Also, some animal models inject purified isoflavones into rats. Isoflavones found in soy are bound into a completely different form in the whole food (soy milk and tofu are included in this discussion as “whole foods” as the processing involved – heat from cooking and blending of the whole soybeans with water and coagulants – does not turn them into purified isoflavones). Soy consumed as a whole food, including soy milk, tofu and fermented soy products, must be metabolized in order to extract the isoflavones. Feeding or injecting an animal with purified isoflavones skips over this metabolic process and is basically the same as giving the animal high doses of a drug.

Unfortunately, animal studies that include feeding soy products (not just purified isoflavones) cannot always be easily translated into human effects either. For instance, studies that have found reduced testosterone levels in male monkeys fed soy formula, failed to take into account the different intestinal bacteria found in monkeys that are not found in humans. Despite our close genetic relation, monkeys have bacteria in their intestines that metabolizes daidzein (a soy isoflavone) into a highly estrogenic substance; humans do not have this same bacteria.

The animal models can be a good place to start, but should not be relied upon for making health decisions for humans without replication in human subjects. At this point, those studies that have been conducted on humans, and even the majority of those conducted on animals, have leaned towards the conclusion that soy is beneficial to health, not detrimental.

What forms of soy and how much soy should you be eating?
Since most of the studies that raise concerns about soy consumption seem to focus on pre-metabolized isolates or other similarly processed forms of soy, the wisest choice to is to choose to eat soy foods as part of a balanced diet and in the least processed form available. Soy can be a valuable source of protein in a vegetarian or vegan diet, but it should not be relied upon as the sole source of protein. We should also be careful with drawing the conclusion that, if a little bit of something is good, a lot must be even better. Variety in your diet is an excellent way to ensure balance and good health.

Choosing traditional and less processed forms of soy (such as tofu, miso, tempeh, edamame and even soy milk) over highly processed soy foods (such as soy cheeses, soy meats, and soy protein isolates) is likely to be a safer choice, as well. We all need our treats sometimes and the research does not support the conclusion that eating a little vegan soy cheese on your pizza is going to cause health problems, so go ahead and allow yourself some indulgences every now and then if you want to. Just don’t make soy cheese and soy sausage casserole the mainstay of your diet.

Footnotes:
1. Setchell KD, et al. Isoflavone content of infant formulas and the metabolic fate of these early phytoestrogens in early life. Am J Clin Nutr 1998 Dec;68(6 Suppl): 1431S-1435S.
2. Nagate C, et al. Inverse association of replacing meat with soyabean in the diet on sex hormone concentrations in Japanese men. Nutr Cancer 2000; 36(1): 14-8.
3. Habito RC, et al. Effects of replacing meat with soyabean in the diet on sex hormone concentrations in healthy adult males. Br J Nutr 2000 Oct;84(4): 557-63.
4. Gradern-Thorpe D, et al. Dietary supplements of soya flour lower serum testosterone concentrations and improve markers of oxidative stress in men. Eur J Clin Nutr 2003 Jan;57(1): 100-6.
5. Badger TM, et al. Soy Protein Isolate and Protection Against Cancer. J Am Col Nutr 2005: 245(2): 146S-9S
6. Ju YH, et al. Dietary genistein negates the inhibitory effect of tamoxifen on growth of estrogen-dependent breast cancer (MCF-7) cells implanted in athymic mice. Cancer Res 2002 May; 62(9): 3474-7.
7. Ju YH, et al. Estrogenic Effect of Extracts from Cabbage, Fermented Cabbage, and Acidified Brussel Sprouts on Growth and Gene Expression of Estrogen-Dependent Human Breast Cancer (MCF-7) Cells. J Agric Food Chem 2000; 48(10): 4628-34.
8. Lephart, et al. Phytoestrogens decrease brain calcium-binding proteins but do not alter hypothalamic androgen metabolizing enzymes in adult male rats. Brain Res 2000 Mar 17; 859(1): 123-31.
9. Personal communication, August 2005
10. Bruce B, et al. Isoflavone supplements do not affect thyroid function in iodine-replete postmenopausal women. J Med Food 2003 Winter; 6(4): 309-16.
11. Haselkorn T, et al. Why Are Thyroid Cancer Rates So High in Southeast Asian Women Living in the United States? The Bay Area Thyroid Cancer Study. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prev 2003 Feb; 12: 144-50.
12. Merritt RJ and Jenks BH. Safety of Soy-based Infant Formulas Containing Isoflavones: The Clinical Evidence. J Nutr 2004 May; 134: 1220S-4S.
13. Munro IC, et al. Soy Isoflavones: a safety review. Nutr Rev 2003; 61:1-33.
14. Strom BL, et al. Exposure to soy-based formula in infancy and endocrinological and reproductive outcomes in young adulthood. J Am Med Assn 2001; 286:807-14
15. Churella HR, et al. Growth and protein status of term infants fed soy protein formulas differing in protein content. J Am Coll Nutr 1994; 13:262-7.
16. Businco L, et al. No oetrogens hormonal effects in long-term soy formula fed children. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999; 103:S169.
17. North K and Golding J. A maternal vegetarian diet in pregnancy is associated with hypospadias. The ALSPAC Study Team. Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood. British J Urology 2000 Jan; 85(1): 107-13.
18. Ibid. Pg. 107
19. Ibid. Pg. 111
20. Personal communication, August 2005

VegFamily Resources: Visit the
VegFamily Shopping Guide for vegan products and companies that support VegFamily.

Christa has a Masters degree in Public Health and works part-time as a health educator. She lives in Colorado with her husband and two daughters. Christa has been vegetarian for 20 years and vegan for nearly 17 years.

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http://www.healingdaily.com/detoxification-diet/soy.htm

Is soy healthy?

Soy is not the health food that you think it is.

From tofu and tacos to baby formula and burgers, soy products have swept the nation as a healthy source of protein, with a reputation for being all natural and good for you. New studies have however raised questions over whether the ingredients in soy might increase the risk of breast cancer in some women, affect brain function in men and lead to hidden developmental ab-normalities in infants.

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The core of their concerns rests with the chemical makeup of soy: in addition to all the nutrients and protein, soy contains a natural chemical that mimics estrogen, the female hormone. Some studies in animals show that this chemical can alter sexual development. And in fact, 2 glasses of soy milk/day, over the course of one month, contain enough of the chemical to change the timing of a woman’s menstrual cycle.

Isoflavones in soybeans

Soybeans contain an impressive array of phytochemicals (biologically active components derived from plants), the most interesting of which are known as isoflavones. Isoflavones are the compounds which are being studied in relation to the relief of certain menopausal symptoms, cancer prevention, slowing or reversing osteoporosis and reducing the risk of heart disease.

Soy critics point to the fact that soybeans, as provided by nature, are not suitable for human consumption. Only after fermentation for some time, or extensive processing, including chemical extractions and high temperatures, are the beans, or the soy protein isolate, suitable for digestion when eaten.

Soybeans also reportedly contain an anti-nutrient called "phytic acid", which all beans do. However, soybeans have higher levels of phytic acid than any other legume. Phytic acid may block the absorption of certain minerals, including magnesium, calcium, iron and zinc. Epidemiological studies have shown that people in 3rd World Countries who have high consumption of grains and soy also commonly have deficiencies in these minerals. It must also be noted that this may be of particular concern with regard to babies who are using soy-based infant formulas.

What is the truth when it comes to soy?

So how does one get to the truth when it comes to soy? Usually, the first question I ask is… "Where is the money? Who has something to be gained from one side or the other?" With the soy issue, there does not seem to be an easy answer here either… and that's because there appear to be strong financial incentives on both sides of the argument.

Who has something to gain from the consumption of soy? Perhaps companies like Monsanto which produce the genetically modified soybean seeds. Perhaps companies like Cargill Foods or SoyLife which produce countless soy-based foods. Or soybean councils in several states which represent farmers who grow this new, emerging bumper crop. And, of course, all of the companies which are constructing factories all over the world to do the processing which is necessary to make soybeans edible.

Soy - more negatives than positives

I feel the positive aspects of the soybean are overshadowed by their potential for harm. Soybeans in fact contain a large number of dangerous substances. We already mentionned "phytic acid", also called "phytates". This organic acid is present in the bran or hulls of all seeds and legumes, but none have the high level of phytates which soybeans do. Phytic acid blocks the body's uptake of essential minerals like magnesium, calcium, iron and especially zinc. Adding to the high phytate problem, soybeans are highly resistant to phytate-reducing techniques, such as long, slow cooking.

Soybeans also contain potent enzyme-inhibitors. These inhibitors block uptake of trypsin and other enzymes which the body needs for protein digestion. Normal cooking does not de-activate these harmful antinutrients, which can cause serious gastric distress, reduced protein digestion and can lead to chronic deficiencies in amino acid uptake.

In addition, soybeans also contain hemagglutinin, a clot-promoting substance which causes red blood cells to clump together. These clustered blood cells cannot properly absorb oxygen for distribution to the body's tissues, and are unable to help in maintaining good cardiac health.

Hemagglutinin and trypsin inhibitors are both "growth depressant" substances. Although the act of fermenting soybeans does de-activate both hemagglutinin and trypsin inhibitors, cooking and precipitation do not. Although these enzyme inhibitors are found in reduced levels within precipitated soy products like tofu, they are not completely eliminated. For this reason, if you are going to consume soy, I would recommend limiting your soy use to fermented products only, like tempeh or miso.

Only after a long period of fermentation (as ocurs in the creation of miso or tempeh) are the antinutrient and phytate levels of soybeans reduced, making their nourishment available to the human digestive system. The high level of harmful substances remaining in precipitated soy products leaves their nutritional value questionable at best, and potentially harmful.

Soy and hormonal balance

Just because tofu is of vegetable origin does not necessarily make it healthy.

Health-conscious Americans believe in the benefits of tofu, infant formula and other food products made from soybeans and soy extract. But their assumption is now being called into question by Jill Schneider, associate professor of biological sciences at Lehigh University in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania.

In a study of hamsters completed under Schneider's direction, it was recently found that a component of soy beans - isoflavones - significantly accelerated the onset of puberty in the rodents.

These findings, which are similar to the results reported by labs which have experimented with rats, might be relevant to humans, Schneider says. She points out that many babies who are allergic to cow's milk are fed soy-based formulas which contain isoflavones. Isoflavones, she says, can act like estrogen, a natural hormone important in the development of both male and female humans.

It is child abuse to feed a baby soy formula. A baby fed soy will receive, through the phytoestrogens, the equivalent of approximately 5 birth control pills per day! The damage is incalculable.

There are other reasons to stay away from soy

A very large percentage of soy - over 90% - is genetically modified and it also has one of the highest percentages contamination by pesticides of any of the foods we eat.

Soy processors have worked hard to get these anti-nutrients out of the finished product, particularly soy protein isolate (SPI) which is the key ingredient in most soy foods which imitate meat and dairy products, including baby formulas and some brands of soy milk.

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SPI is not something you can make in your own kitchen. Production takes place in industrial factories where soybeans are first mixed with an alkaline solution to remove fiber, then precipitated and separated using an acid wash and, finally, neutralized in an alkaline solution.

Acid washing in aluminum tanks leaches high levels of aluminum into the final product. As a result, soy-based formula also has over 1000% more aluminum than conventional milk based formulas. Breast milk is best, but if one, for whatever reason, cannot breast feed, then Carnation Good Start until six months and Carnation FollowUp after that seem to be the best commercial formula currently available. The milk protein is hydrolyzed 80% which tends to significantly decrease its allergenicity.

Finally, the resulting curds are spray-dried at high temperatures to produce a high-protein powder. A final hardship to the original soybean is high-temperature, high-pressure extrusion processing of soy protein isolate to produce textured vegetable protein.

Nitrites, which are potent carcinogens, are formed during spray-drying, and a toxin called "lysinoalanine" is formed during alkaline processing.(1) Numerous artificial flavorings, particularly MSG, are added to soy protein isolate and textured vegetable protein products to mask their strong "beany" taste and to impart the flavor of meat.(2)

Yet soy protein isolate and textured vegetable protein are used extensively in school lunch programs, commercial baked goods, fast food products and diet beverages. They are heavily promoted in 3rd world countries and form the basis of many food giveaway programs.

Marketing and soy

All soybean producers pay a mandatory assessment of 0.5% to 1% of the net market price of soybeans. The total - something like US $80 million annually(3) - supports United Soybean's program to "strengthen the position of soybeans in the marketplace and maintain and expand domestic and foreign markets for uses for soybeans and soybean products".

State soybean councils from Maryland, Nebraska, Delaware, Arkansas, Virginia, North Dakota and Michigan provide another $2.5 million for "research".(4) Private companies like Archer Daniels Midland also contribute their share. ADM spent $4.7 million for advertising on the TV shor "Meet the Press" and $4.3 million on "Face the Nation" during the course of a year.(5)

Public relations firms help convert research projects into advertising copy and newspaper articles, and law firms lobby for favorable government regulations. IMF money funds soy-processing plants in foreign countries, and free-trade policies keep soybean abundance flowing to overseas destinations.

Soy milk has posted the biggest gains, soaring from $2 million in 1980 to $300 million in the US in 2001.(6) Recent advances in processing have transformed the bitter, gray, beany-tasting Asian beverage into a product that Western consumers will accept - one that tastes like a milkshake, but without the guilt.

What about soy offering protection against cancer?

Some sources claim that "soy has demonstrated powerful anticancer benefits...the Japanese, who eat 30 times as much soy as North Americans, have a lower incidence of cancers of the breast, uterus and prostate."(7)

Indeed they do. But the Japanese, and Asians in general, have much higher rates of other types of cancer, particularly cancer of the esophagus, stomach, liver and pancreas.(8) Asians throughout the world also have high rates of thyroid cancer.(9) The logic which links low rates of reproductive cancers to soy consumption requires attribution of high rates of thyroid and digestive cancers to the same foods, particularly as soy causes these types of cancers in laboratory rats.

In 1991, Japanese researchers reported that consumption of as little as 30 grams or 2 tablespoons of soybeans/day for only 1 month resulted in a significant increase in thyroid-stimulating hormone.(10) Diffuse goiter and hypothyroidism appeared in some of the subjects and many complained of constipation, lethargy and fatigue, even though their intake of iodine was adequate.

25 grams of soy protein isolate, the minimum amount claimed to have cholesterol-lowering effects, contains from 50 to 70 mg of isoflavones. It took only 45 mg of isoflavones in pre-menopausal women to exert significant biological effects, including a reduction in hormones needed for adequate thyroid function. These effects lingered for 3 months after soy consumption was discontinued.(11)

In 1992, the Swiss health service estimated that 100 grams of soy protein provided the estrogenic equivalent of the Pill.(12)

Soy formula: Birth control pills for infants

But it is the isoflavones in infant formula which give the most cause for concern. In 1998, investigators reported that the daily exposure of infants to isoflavones in soy infant formula is 6 to 11 times higher on a body-weight basis than the dose that has hormonal effects in adults consuming soy foods. Circulating concentrations of isoflavones in infants who were fed soy-based formula were 13,000 to 22,000 times higher than plasma estradiol concentrations in infants on cow's milk formula.(13)

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Approximately 25% of bottle-fed children in the US receive soy-based formula - a much higher percentage than in other parts of the Western world. It is estimated that an infant exclusively fed soy formula receives the estrogen equivalent (based on body weight) of at least 5 birth control pills per day.(14) By contrast, almost no phytoestrogens have been detected in dairy-based infant formula or in human milk, even when the mother consumes soy products.

 

 

References:

(1). Rackis, et al., ibid., p. 22; "Evaluation of the Health Aspects of Soy Protein Isolates as Food Ingredients", prepared for FDA by Life Sciences Research Office, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20014), USA, Contract No. FDA 223-75-2004, 1979.

(2). See www/truthinlabeling.org.

(3). See www/unitedsoybean.org.

(4). These are listed in www.soyonlineservice.co.nz.

(5). Wall Street Journal, October 27, 1995.

(6). Urquhart, John, "A Health Food Hits Big Time", Wall Street Journal, August 3, 1999, p. B1

(7). Natural Medicine News (L & H Vitamins, 32-33 47th Avenue, Long Island City, NY 11101), USA, January/February 2000, p. 8.
(8). Harras, Angela (ed.), Cancer Rates and Risks, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, 1996, 4th edition.
(9). Searle, Charles E. (ed.), Chemical Carcinogens, ACS Monograph 173, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 1976.

(10). Ishizuki, Y. et al., "The effects on the thyroid gland of soybeans administered experimentally in healthy subjects", Nippon Naibunpi Gakkai Zasshi (1991) 767:622-629.

(11). Cassidy, A. et al., "Biological Effects of a Diet of Soy Protein Rich in Isoflavones on the Menstrual Cycle of Premenopausal Women", American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (1994) 60:333-340.

(12). Bulletin de L'Office Fédéral de la Santé Publique, no. 28, July 20, 1992.

(13). Setchell, K.D. et al., "Isoflavone content of infant formulas and the metabolic fate of these early phytoestrogens in early life", American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, December 1998 Supplement, 1453S-1461S.

(14). Irvine, C. et al., "The Potential Adverse Effects of Soybean Phytoestrogens in Infant Feeding", New Zealand Medical Journal May 24, 1995, p. 318.

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.rheumatic.org/soy.htm

 

CONCERNS REGARDING SOYBEANS

History of Soybeans
Soybeans come to us from the Orient. During the Chou Dynasty (1134-246 BC) the soybean was designated one of the five sacred grains, along with barley, wheat, millet and rice. However, the pictograph for the soybean, which dates from earlier times, indicates that it was not first used as a food; for whereas the pictographs for the other four grains show the seed and stem structure of the plant, the pictograph for the soybean emphasizes the root structure. Agricultural literature of the period speaks frequently of the soybean and its use in crop rotation. Apparently the soy plant was initially used as a method of fixing nitrogen. The soybean did not serve as a food until the discovery of fermentation techniques, sometime during the Chou Dynasty. Thus the first soy foods were fermented products like tempeh, natto, miso and shogu (soy or tamari sauce).

At a later date, possibly in the 2nd century B.C., Chinese scientists discovered that a puree of cooked soybeans could be precipitated with calcium sulfate or magnesium sulfate (plaster of Paris or Epsom salts) to make a smooth pale curd -tofu or bean curd. The use of fermented and precipitated soy products soon spread to other parts of the Orient, notably Japan and Indonesia. Although the highly flavored fermented products have elicited greater interest among scientists and epicures, it is the bland precipitated products that are most frequently used, accounting for approximately 90% of the processed soybeans consumed in Asia today. The increased reliance on bean curd as a source of protein, which occurred between 700 A. D. and the present time, has not necessarily been a beneficial change for the populations of the Orient and Southeast Asia.

Fit for Human Consumption?
The Chinese, did not eat the soybean as they did other pulses (legumes) such as the lentil, because the soybean contains large quantities of a number of harmful a substances. First among them are potent enzyme inhibitors which block the action of trypsin and other enzymes needed for protein digestion.

These"antinutrients" are not completely deactivated during ordinary cooking and can produce serious gastric distress, reduced protein digestion and chronic deficiencies in amino acid uptake. In test animals, diets high in trypsin inhibitors cause enlargement and pathological conditions of the pancreas, including cancer. The soybean also contains hemagglutinin, a clot promoting substance that causes red blood cells to clump together. Trypsin inhibitors and hemagglutinin have been rightly labeled growth depressant substances. Fortunately they are deactivated during the process of fermentation. However, in precipitated products, enzyme inhibitors concentrate in the soaking liquid rather than in the curd. Thus in tofu and bean curd, these enzyme inhibitors are reduced in quantity, but not completely eliminated.

Soybeans are also high in phytic acid or phytates. This is an organic acid, present in the bran or hulls of all seeds, which blocks the uptake of essential minerals-calcium, magnesium, iron and especially zinc-in the intestinal tract. Although not a household word, phytates have been extensively studied. Scientists are in general agreement that grain and legume based diets high in phytates contribute to widespread mineral deficiencies in third world countries.

Analysis shows that calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc are present in the plant foods eaten in these areas, but the high phytate content of soy and rice based diets prevents their absorption. The soybean has a higher phytate content than any other grain or legume that has been studied. Furthermore, it seems to be highly resistant to many phytate reducing techniques such as long, slow cooking. Only a long period of fermentation will significantly reduce the phytate content of soybeans. Thus fermented products such as tempeh and miso provide nourishment that is easily assimilated, but the nutritional value of tofu and bean curd, both high in phytates, is questionable.

When precipitated soy products are consumed with meat, the mineral blocking effects of the phytates are reduced. The Japanese traditionally eat tofu as part of a mineral-rich fish broth. Vegetarians who consume tofu and bean curd as a substitute for meat and dairy products risk severe mineral deficiencies. The results of calcium, magnesium and iron deficiency are well known, those of zinc are less so. Zinc is called the intelligence mineral because it is needed for optimal development and functioning of the brain and nervous system. It plays a role in protein synthesis and collagen formation, it Is involved in the blood sugar control mechanism and thus protects against diabetes; it is needed for a healthy reproductive system.

Zinc is a key component in numerous vital enzymes and plays a role in the immune system. Phytates found in soy products interfere with zinc absorption more completely than with other minerals. Literature extolling soy products tends to minimize the role of zinc in human physiology, and to gloss over the deleterious effect of diets high in phytic acid.

Milk drinking is given as the reason second generation Japanese in America grow taller than their native ancestors. Some investigators postulate that the reduced phytate content of the American diet-whatever maybe its other deficiencies-is the true explanation, pointing out that Asian and Oriental children who do not get enough meat and fish products to counteract the effects of a high phytate diet, frequently suffer rickets, stunting and other growth problems.

Marketing the Soybean
The truth is, however, that most Americans are unlikely to adopt traditional soy products as their principle food. Tofu, bean curd and tempeh have disagreeable texture and are too bland for the Western palate; pungent and tasty miso and natto lose out in taste; only soy sauce enjoys widespread popularity as a condiment. The soy industry has therefore looked for other ways to market the superabundance of soybeans now grown in the United States.

Large scale cultivation of the soybean in the United States began only after the Second World War, and quickly rose to 140 billion pounds per year. Most of the crop is made into animal feed, soy oil for hydrogenated fats margarine and shortening. During the past 20 years, the industry has concentrated on finding markets for the byproducts of soy oil manufacture, including soy "lecithin", made from the oil sludge, and soy protein products, made from defatted soy flakes, a challenge that has involved overcoming consumer resistance to soy products, generally considered tasteless "poverty" foods.

The quickest way to gain product acceptability in the less affluent society," said a soy industry spokesman, " ... is to have the product consumed on its own merit in a more affluent society."" Hence the proliferation of soy products resembling traditional American foods-soy milk for cows milk, soy baby formula, soy yogurt, soy ice cream, soy cheese, soy flour for baking and textured soy protein as meat substitutes, usually promoted as high protein, low-fat, no cholesterol "health foods" to the upscale consumer increasingly concerned about his health. The growth of vegetarianism among the more affluent classes has greatly accelerated the acceptability and use of these artificial products. Unfortunately they pose numerous dangers.

Processing Denatures and Dangers Remain
The production of soy milk is relatively simple. In order to remove as much of the trypsin inhibitor content as possible, the beans are first soaked in an alkaline solution. The pureed solution is then heated to about 115 degrees Centigrade in a pressure cooker. This method destroys most (but not all) of the anti-nutrients but has the unhappy side effect of so denaturing the proteins that they become very difficult to digest and much reduced in effectiveness. The phytate content remains in soy milk to block the uptake of essential minerals. In addition, the alkaline soaking solution produces a carcinogen, lysinealine, and reduces the cystine content, which is already low in the soybean. Lacking cystine, the entire protein complex of the soybean becomes useless unless the diet is fortified with cystine-rich meat, eggs, or dairy products.

Most soy products that imitate traditional American food items, including baby formulas and some brands of soy milk, are made with soy protein isolate, that is the soy protein isolated from the carbohydrate and fatty acid components that naturally occur in the bean. Soy beans are first ground and subjected to high-temperature and solvent extraction processes to remove the oils. The resultant defatted meal is then mixed with an alkaline solution and sugars in a separation process to remove fiber. Then it is precipitated and separated using an acid wash. Finally the resultant curds are neutralized in an alkaline solution and spray dried at high temperatures to produce high protein powder.

This is a highly refined product in which both vitamin and protein quality are compromised-but some trypsin inhibitors remain, even after such extreme refining. Trypsin inhibitor content of soy protein isolate can vary as much as 5-fold. In rats, even low level trypsin inhibitor soy protein isolate feeding results in reduced weight gain compared to controls. Soy product producers are not required to state trypsin inhibitor content on labels, nor even to meet minimum standards, and the public, trained to avoid dietary cholesterol, a substance vital for normal growth and metabolism, has never heard of the potent anti-nutrients found in cholesterol-free soy products.

Soy Formula Is Not the Answer
Soy protein isolate is the main ingredient of soy-based infant formulas. Along with trypsin inhibitors, these formulas have a high phytate content. Use of soy formula has caused zinc deficiency in infants. Aluminum content of soy formula is 10 times greater than milk based formula, and 100 times greater than unprocessed milk. Aluminum has a toxic effect on the kidneys of infants, and has been implicated as cause in Alzheimer's in adults.

Soy milk formulas are often given to babies with milk allergy; but allergies to soy are almost as common as those to milk. Soy formulas lack cholesterol which is absolutely essential for the development of the brain and nervous system; they also lack lactose and galactose, which play an equally important role in the development of the nervous system. I would strongly discourage the use of soy formulas.

Nitrosamines, which are potent carcinogens, are often found in soy protein foods, and are greatly increased during the high temperature drying process. Not surprisingly, animal feeding studies show a lower weight gain for rats on soy formula than those on whole milk, high-lactose formula; similar results have been observed in children on macrobiotic diets which include the use of soy milk and large amounts of whole grains. Children brought up on high-phytate diets tend to be thin and scrawny.

Fabricated Soy Foods
A final indignity to the original soy bean is high-temperature, high-pressure extrusion processing of soy protein isolate to product textured vegetable protein (TVP). Numerous artificial flavorings, particularly MSG, are added to TVP products to mask their strong "beany" taste, and impart the flavor of meat. Soy protein isolate and textured vegetable protein are used extensively in school lunch programs, commercial baked goods, diet beverages and fast food products. They are heavily promoted in third world countries and form the basis of many food give-away programs. These soy products greatly inhibit zinc and iron absorption; in test animals they cause enlarged organs, particularly the pancreas and thyroid gland, and increased deposition of fatty acids in the liver.

Human feeding tests to determine the cholesterol lowering properties of soy protein isolate have not shown them to be effective. Nevertheless, they are often promoted as having beneficial effects on cholesterol levels.

Cancer Preventing or Cancer Causing?
The food industry also touts soy products for their cancer preventing properties. Isoflavone aglycones are anticarcinogenic substances found in traditionally fermented soybean products. However, in non-fermented soy products such as tofu and soy milk, these isoflavones are present in an altered form as beta-glycoside conjugates, which have no anti-carcinogenic effect. Some researchers believe the rapid increase in liver and pancreatic cancer in Africa is due to the introduction of soy products there.

The fatty acid profile of the soybean includes large amounts of beneficial omega-3 fatty acids compared to other pulses legumes); but these omega-3 fatty acids are particularly susceptible to rancidity when subjected to high pressures and temperatures. This is exactly what is required to remove oil from the bean, as soybean oil is particularly difficult to extract. hexane or other solvents are always used to extract oil from soybeans, and traces remain in the commercial product.

While fermented soy products contain protein, vitamins, anti-carcinogenic substances and important fatty acids, they can under no circumstances be called nutritionally complete. Like all pulses, the soybean lacks vital sulfur-containing amino acids cystine and methionine. These are usually supplied by rice and other grains in areas where the soybean is traditionally consumed. Soy should never be considered as a substitute for animal products like meat or milk. Claims that fermented soy products like tempeh can be relied on as a source of vitamin B12, necessary for healthy blood and nervous system, have not been supported by scientific research.,' Finally, soybeans do not supply all-important fat soluble vitamins D and preformed A (retinol) which act as catalysts for the proper absorption and utilization of all minerals and water soluble vitamins in the diet.

These "fat soluble activators" are found only in certain animal foods such as organ meats, butter, eggs, fish and shellfish. Carotenes from plant foods and exposure to sunlight are not sufficient to supply the body's requirements for vitamins A and D. Soy products often replace animal products in third world countries where intake of B12 and fat soluble A and D are already low. Soy products actually increase requirements for vitamins B12 and D.

Are soy products easy to digest, as claimed? Fermented soy products probably are; but unfermented products with their cargo of phytates, enzyme inhibitors, rancid fatty acids and altered proteins most certainly are not. Pet food manufacturers promote soy free dog and cat food as "highly digestible"

Only Fermented Soy Products Are Safe
To summarize, traditional fermented soy products such as miso, natto and tempeh, which are usually made with organically grown soybeans, have a long history of use that is generally beneficial when combined with other elements of the Oriental diet including rice, sea foods, fish broth, organ meats and fermented vegetables. The value of precipitated soybean products is problematical, especially when they form the major source of protein in the diet. Modern soy products including soy milks and artificial meat and dairy products made from soy protein isolate and textured vegetable protein are new to the diet and pose a number of serious problems.

The above information was abstracted from an article written by Sally Fallon and Mary Enig, Ph.D. (an international expert renown in the field of lipid chemistry) for Health Freedom News in September of 1995.

Protein Needs for Blood Type A People
Blood type A people should be nearly vegetarians. The above information should make it clear that you should avoid most soy products unless they are fermented (tempeh and miso). You should not have soy protein or tofu. To obtain optimal protein though you will need to eat about a dozen organic eggs per week, unless you are allergic to them. Try not to eat them on consecutive days. You should also soak your seeds and nuts overnight to deactivate the enzyme inhibitors and phytates. It would be even better if you could continue the process until they sprout which is usually from 2-5 days depending on the temperature and the seeds. You will have to rinse the seeds every 12 hours and let them drain. This will completely deactivate the antinutrients and increase the live enzyme content of the seeds and nuts. The nutritional value will probably increase by 2-300%.

Generally you will need 20 to 35 grams of protein at EACH meal. The following is a list of how many grams of protein there are in one cup of:

pecans 9.9; walnuts 14.8; cashews 24.1;
almonds 26.4; pistachio 26; sunflower 34.8
peanuts 37.7; pumpkin seeds 40.6;

Spirulina has incredible health benefits and is probably one of the main reasons why fish are so healthy for you. It is highly likely you can obtain even more benefits from the Spirulina with none of the complications of heavy metal or pesticide contamination present in nearly all fish. Spirulina is a type of blue-green algae that is nearly two-thirds protein. It also has large amounts of chlorophyll and is very valuable to help detoxify the body from heavy metals and radiation. It is also loaded with GLA, which is the main essential fatty acid present in evening primrose or borage oil.

Six tablets contain 2 grams of protein, so you will need approximately 50 tablets if you were to use them as a protein supplement for one meal. I strongly recommend this as a substitute for soy protein. I would try to have at least 4-6 servings per week for anyone who is struggling with chronic illness or looking to optimize their health, especially if they are blood type A.

 

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